India Inequality Report 2022
(GS-II: Social Justice/Indian Society)
According to ‘India Inequality Report 2022: Digital Divide’ released by the NGO Oxfam India – growing inequalities based on caste, religion, gender, class, and geographic location are being worryingly replicated in the digital space in India.
Key Highlights of the report:
Women constitute only one-third of internet users in India
61% of men-owned mobile phones compared to just 31 % of women in 2021
Only 31 per cent of the rural population uses the Internet compared to 67 per cent of their urban counterparts
Maharashtra has the highest internet penetration, while Bihar has the lowest.
Religion and Caste wise Divide:
Sikhs have the highest likelihood of having a computer followed by Christians, Hindus and lastly Muslims.
The tendency to use formal financial services is lowest for ST households, followed by SC households and OBC households.
Division because of poverty:
The chances of having a computer are higher with higher levels of education as well as income.
The likelihood of a digital payment by the richest 60 per cent is four times more than the poorest 40 per cent in India.
About Digital Divide:
The digital divide is a term that refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology (ICT), and those that do not or have restricted access.
Determinants of Digital Divide:
Tackling Digital Divide:
Indian Government Initiatives to tackle digital divide:
Socio-economic benefits of the fisheries sector
(GS-III: Economics of Animal-Rearing)
According to a new study, small fish captured in lakes and the oceans of low and middle-income countries (LMIC) of Africa, Asia and the Pacific can help fill nutritional gaps.
Over a billion people across the world depend heavily on fish and other aquatic foods for nutrition.
The majority of these people reside in the LMIC of Africa, Asia and the Pacific, often near rivers, lakes or the ocean.
Highlights of the study – Small Pelagic Fish Supply Abundant and Affordable Micronutrients to LMIC:
Pelagic fish (herring, sardines and anchovies), which live in the upper layers of open water, are the –
Cold-water species that are found close to the ocean floor, such as cod and flounder, are the most expensive.
These superfoods are incredible sources of the micronutrients needed for human health and cognitive growth.
Small fish could provide environmental, social and economic benefits and help fill nutrient gaps in LMIC.
The findings will help inform public health and fisheries strategies in areas with inadequate information on fish nutrition.
Challenges to the availability of these small fish: Overfishing, trade and the growing international demand for fish oil.
Creating equitable and sustainable regulations for managing small-scale fisheries.
Fishery sector in India:
Schemes and programs:
○ Seaweed Park in Tamil Nadu
○ Development of 5 Major Fishing harbours as the hub of economic activities – Kochi, Chennai, Visakhapatnam, Paradip, and Petuaghat
Recognising the sector’s enormous potential, the Indian government established a dedicated Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairy in 2019.
India to become a hub of drone technology
(GS-III: Security challenges and their management in border areas – linkages of organized crime with terrorism.)
Union Information and Broadcasting Minister said that India will become a hub of drone technology and will require at least 1-lakh drone pilots by next year while addressing the gathering after flagging of the ‘Drone Yatra 2.0’.
A drone or UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is a remotely controlled flying device.
Drones have been divided into five categories based on their weight (existing rules) –
Rules regulating drones in India:
In India, the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) governs the use of all (manned or automated) aerial vehicles.
‘The Drone Rules, 2021’, to regulate the use and operation of Drones or Unmanned Aerial Systems.
Risks associated with drones:
Drones can be misused as weapons of Mass Destruction.
Increased Risk of Armed Attacks.
To smuggle arms, ammunition and drugs.
Balancing security and benefits associated with drones.
Increase Investments in developing drones, which are safer and cheaper.