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4th June Current Affairs

H10N3 bird flu strain

In News:

China has reported the world’s first human infection of the H10N3 bird flu strain.

About H10N3 bird flu:

H10N3 is a type of bird flu or avian flu. These illnesses are common in wild aquatic birds worldwide and can infect domestic poultry and other bird and animal species.

Spread and transmission:

Infected birds shed avian flu in their saliva, mucus, and poop, and humans can get infected when enough of the virus gets in the eyes, nose, or mouth, or is inhaled from infected droplets or dust.

Is it a cause for concern?

Health authorities have played down the outbreak, saying the case was a sporadic virus transmission from poultry to humans, and the risk of causing a pandemic was extremely low.

H10N3 is a low pathogenic or relatively less severe strain of the virus in poultry and the risk of it spreading on a large scale is very low.

How to prevent the spread of H10N3 among people’?

People should avoid contact with sick or dead poultry and avoid direct contact with live birds as much as possible.

People must pay attention to food hygiene at the moment.

People should wear masks and improve self-protection awareness, while constantly monitoring fever and respiratory symptoms.

Different strains of bird flu:

Several strains of bird flu have been found among animals in China but mass outbreaks in humans are rare.

The last human epidemic of bird flu in China occurred in late 2016 to 2017, with the H7N9 virus.

H5N8 is a subtype of the Influenza A virus (also known as the bird flu virus). While H5N8 only presents a low risk to humans, it is highly lethal to wild birds and poultry.

In April, a highly pathogenic H5N6 avian flu was found in wild birds in northeast China’s Shenyang city.


Influenza viruses are classified into subtypes based on two surface proteins, Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). For example, a virus that has an HA 7 protein and NA 9 protein is designated as subtype H7N9.

National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)

In News:

Supreme Court is suo motu examining ways to protect children who have suffered personal loss and trauma due to the pandemic.


In this regard, On May 28, the Court directed the Centre to state welfare measures for the children orphaned by the pandemic.

The NCPCR and the States were also asked to compile data identifying children in need of immediate care.

Based on Bal Swaraj, an online tracking portal, NCPCR made the following submissions:

Nearly 10,000 children in the country are in immediate need of care and protection.

They include children aged between zero and 17 orphaned or abandoned during the COVID-19 pandemic since March 2020.

These children ran a high risk of being pushed into trafficking and flesh trade.

Need for special attention:

The cataclysmic COVID-19 pandemic devastated the vulnerable sections of society. There are a number of children who have become orphans due to the demise of either the breadwinner of the family or of both their parents. These children need immediate and special attention from the authorities.

About NCPCR:

Set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.

It works under the administrative control of the Ministry of Women & Child Development.

The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Under the RTE Act, 2009, the NCPCR can:

  • inquire into complaints about violation of the law.
  • summon an individual and demand evidence.
  • seek a magisterial enquiry.
  • file a writ petition in the High Court or Supreme Court.
  • approach the government concerned for prosecution of the offender.
  • recommend interim relief to those affected.


This commission has a chairperson and six members of which at least two should be women.

All of them are appointed by Central Government for three years.

The maximum age to serve in commission is 65 years for Chairman and 60 years for members.

Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007

In News:

The High Court of Karnataka has said that there is a complete failure on the part of the State government to comply with its statutory obligation of establishing old-age homes as per the provisions of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.

Is it mandatory for the state to set up such homes as per the law?

Section 19 of the law says, the State Government may establish and maintain such number of oldage homes at accessible places, as it may deem necessary, in a phased manner, beginning with at least one in each district .

The State Government may also, prescribe a scheme for management of oldage homes.

What has the High Court said on this?

Though the Act states that the State governments “may” establish and maintain old-age homes, the Court said that depending upon various factors, while interpreting a statute, the word “may” can be interpreted as “shall” and vice versa.

Need for such homes:

Indigent senior citizens need protection considering the harsh reality of life, in which a large number of elderly persons are not being looked after by their families due to withering of the joint family system. Besides, ageing has become a major social challenge.

Overview of the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007:

This Act makes it legally obliging for adult children and heirs to provide for parents by way of a monthly allowance.

This Act provides an inexpensive and speedy procedure to claim monthly maintenance for parents and senior citizens.

According to this Act, parents could mean biological, adoptive or step-parents.

Under this Act, there are also provisions to protect the life and property of such persons (elderly).