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3rd August Current Affairs

Budget Allocation and Utilization of Funds under the National Ayush Mission

(GS-II: Issues related to development and management of social sector related to health, National Ayush Mission etc)

In News:

Under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the National AYUSH Mission, the total budget of 3119.46 crores has been allocated/ released as a central share to States/UTs since the inception of the scheme and they have reported an expenditure of Rs. 2290.20 crores.

Background:

Co-location of AYUSH facilities: The government of India has adopted a strategy of Co-location of AYUSH facilities at Primary Health Centers (PHCs), Community Health Centers (CHCs) and District Hospitals (DHs), thus enabling the choice the patients for different systems of medicines under a single window.

Supported by Ministry of Health and family welfare: The engagement of AYUSH doctors/ paramedics and their training is supported by the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare under National Health Mission (NHM), while the support for AYUSH infrastructure, equipment/ furniture and medicines are provided by the Ministry of Ayush under National AYUSH Mission (NAM)as shared responsibilities

Public Health is a State subject: AYUSH educational institutions come under the purview of respective State/UT Governments.

However, under NAM, as per the proposals received from State Governments through State Annual Action Plans (SAAPs), they have been supported for setting up 9 new AYUSH Educational Institutions since the scheme’s inception.

National Ayush Mission:

Launched in September 2014 by the Department of AYUSH under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, during the 12th Plan for implementation through States/UTs.

Now, it is implemented by the Ministry of Ayush.

The scheme involves expansion of the AYUSH sector to promote holistic health of Indians.

The Mission addresses the gaps in health services through supporting the efforts of State/UT Governments for providing AYUSH health services/education in the country, particularly in vulnerable and far-flung areas.

Parliament passes bill to ban funding of weapons of mass destruction

(GS-II: Parliament and State legislature-structure, functioning and conduct of business etc, weapons of mass destruction)

In News:

Parliament passed a bill (The Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Amendment Bill, 2022)which seeks to ban funding of weapons of mass destruction and also empowers the Centre to freeze, seize or attach financial assets and economic resources of people engaged in such activities.

Details:

The previous act, the Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition of Unlawful Activities) Act, passed in 2005, only banned the manufacture of weapons of mass destruction.

Key Amendments:

Section 12A: The amendment bill seeks to insert a new Section 12A in the existing law which states that “no person shall finance any activity which is prohibited under this Act, or under the United Nations (Security Council) Act, 1947 or any other relevant Act for the time being in force, or by an order issued under any such Act, in relation to weapons of mass destruction and their delivery systems.”

Prevent financing of such activities: To prevent persons from financing such activities, the central government may freeze, seize or attach funds, financial assets, or economic resources (whether owned, held, or controlled directly or indirectly).

Prevent finances or related services available: It may also prohibit persons from making finances or related services available for the benefit of other persons in relation to any activity which is prohibited.

What are Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)?

These are weapons with the capacity to inflict death and destruction on such a massive scale and so indiscriminately that its very presence in the hands of a hostile power can be considered a grievous threat.

Modern weapons of mass destruction are either nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons—frequently referred to collectively as NBC weapons.

The term weapons of mass destruction has been in currency since at least 1937, when it was used to describe massed formations of bomber aircraft.

For example, Nuclear bombs used in Hiroshima and Nagasaki attack in Japan.

PPP in Healthcare

(GS-II & III: Government policies and Interventions/ Investment Model)

In News:

The private sector has the potential of providing disruptive innovation for serving the public health goals of the Central and State governments in India.  According to National Prevalence Survey, almost half of all patients with TB symptoms seek care in the private sector.

Some private sector engagement programs for TB:

The Private-Provider Interface Agency (PPIA):(Mumbai in Maharashtra, Patna in Bihar, and Mehsana in Gujarat)

It worked with a network of private doctors, chemists, laboratories, and hospitals to ensure ‘Standards of TB Care’.

Result: As a result of the implementation of the PPIA program in Mumbai and Patna, there was a 351% and 532% increase in TB case notifications from the private sector, between 2014 and 2018. The actual reporting of cases resulted in a greater understanding of the TB burden on the ground.

Chiranjeevi Yojana program (Gujarat): The government is engaging with private providers to increase institutional deliveries.

Hausala Sajheedari initiative (UP): The government is engaging private health facilities for family planning. The scheme works on a reimbursement basis under a public-private partnership (PPP) model.

The Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission (ABDM), can help in achieving universal health coverage, quality healthcare for all, and also eliminating Tuberculosis (TB). This program aims to digitize the country’s healthcare ecosystem and to enable the creation of an enabling ecosystem for fostering public-private collaborations.

100% Quota to Locals

In News:

SC Quashes Jharkhand Decision to Grant 100% Quota to Locals in Govt Jobs

Details:

Observation by SC “‘The citizens have equal rights, and the total exclusion of others by creating an opportunity for one class is not contemplated by the founding fathers of the Constitution of India”

The Issue: Jharkhand Government in 2016 granted 100% reservations to locals of 13 scheduled areas in public jobs. Previously State HC had termed the decision discriminatory and impermissible.

Rights violated: The move is unconstitutional and ultra vires Articles 14, 16(2), 16(3) and 35 of the Constitution of India.

For reservation outer limit is 50% as specified in the Indra Sawhney case, 1992.

Previous Case: The top court relied on the constitution bench judgment of 2020 related to a 100% quota in jobs in Andhra Pradesh.

Power of Governor over scheduled areas: The power of the governor is pari passu with the legislative power of Parliament and the State. The power of the Governor does not supersede the fundamental rights guaranteed under Part III of the Constitution.