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2nd December Current Affairs

Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0

(GS-II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources)

In News:

Two rounds of Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 of 15 days’ duration were conducted recently, to reach out to the pregnant women and children who missed vaccination under routine immunisation programmes in 250 districts across 29 states/UTs.

Details:

During Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 3.0 around 9.5 lakh children and 2.2 lakh pregnant women were vaccinated.

Various States and UTs have started implementation of the Intensified Mission Indradhanush 3.0.

About IMI 3.0:

It is a campaign aimed to reach those children and pregnant women who have been missed out or been left out of the Routine Immunisation Programme.

This is aimed to accelerate the full immunisation of children and pregnant women through a mission mode intervention.

The first phase has been rolled out from 22nd Feb. for 15 days,

It is being conducted in pre-identified 250 districts/urban areas across 29 States/UTs in the country.

Beneficiaries from migration areas and hard to reach areas will be targeted as they may have missed their vaccine doses during the pandemic.

Classification of districts:

As per the guidelines released for IMI 3.0, the districts have been classified to reflect 313 low risk; 152 medium risk; and 250 high risk districts.

What is the Mission Indradhanush?

‘Mission Indradhanush’ was launched by the Government of India in Decmber 2014.

It was aimed to strengthen and re-energize the programme and achieve full immunization coverage for all children and pregnant women.

The ultimate goal of Mission Indradhanush is to ensure full immunization with all available vaccines for children up to two years of age and pregnant women.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) 2.0:

‘Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0‘was launched on October 31, 2019 to ensure that not a single child in the country misses out on vaccination.

It had a special focus on improving coverage in areas with “low” immunisation.

Through ‘IMI 2.0’, the health ministry aims to reach each and every child below the age of two years and all pregnant women still uncovered/partially covered in 271 districts of the country.

5G technology

(GS-III: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights)

According to the recently released ‘Ericsson Mobility Report’:

Fifth generation telecom services are likely to account for 39% of mobile subscriptions or about 500 million subscriptions in India at the end of 2027.

The total number of smartphone subscriptions is expected to be 810 million at the end of 2021 and is projected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 7%, exceeding 1.2 billion by 2027.

4G subscriptions are expected to reduce from 68% of mobile subscriptions in 2021 to 55% in 2027 as subscribers migrate to 5G.

What is 5G?

5G is the next generation of mobile broadband that will eventually replace, or at least augment 4G LTE connection.

Features and benefits of the 5G technology:

Operate in the millimeter wave spectrum (30-300 GHz) which have the advantage of sending large amounts of data at very high speeds.

Operate in 3 bands, namely low, mid and high frequency spectrum.

Reduced latency will support new applications that leverage the power of 5G, the Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence.

Increased capacity on 5G networks can minimize the impact of load spikes, like those that take place during sporting events and news events.

Significance of the technology:

India’s National Digital Communications Policy 2018 highlights the importance of 5G when it states that the convergence of a cluster of revolutionary technologies including 5G, the cloud, Internet of Things (IoT) and data analytics, along with a growing start-up community, promise to accelerate and deepen its digital engagement, opening up a new horizon of opportunities.

What are the potential health risks from 5G?

To date, and after much research performed, no adverse health effect has been causally linked with exposure to wireless technologies.

Tissue heating is the main mechanism of interaction between radiofrequency fields and the human body. Radiofrequency exposure levels from current technologies result in negligible temperature rise in the human body.

As the frequency increases, there is less penetration into the body tissues and absorption of the energy becomes more confined to the surface of the body (skin and eye).

Provided that the overall exposure remains below international guidelines, no consequences for public health are anticipated.

What are the international exposure guidelines?

Two international bodies produce exposure guidelines on electromagnetic fields. Many countries currently adhere to the guidelines recommended by:

  • The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection.
  • The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, through the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

These guidelines are not technology-specific. They cover radiofrequencies up to 300 GHz, including the frequencies under discussion for 5G.

International efforts- International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project:

WHO established the International Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) Project in 1996. The project investigates the health impact of exposure to electric and magnetic fields in the frequency range 0-300 GHz and advises national authorities on EMF radiation protection.

Renunciation of Indian citizenship

(GS-II: Indian Constitution- Significant feature- Citizenship)

In News:

More than six lakh Indians renounced citizenship in the past five years, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) informed the Lok Sabha.

The reason for a large number of Indians surrendering their citizenship was not stated in the reply.

The citizenship act, 1955 prescribes three ways of losing citizenship:

By renunciation:

Any citizen of India of full age and capacity can make a declaration renouncing Indian citizenship

Such a declaration may not be accepted during war.

Even the minor children of the person who renounces citizenship stands to lose their Indian citizenship. However, when their children attain the age of eighteen, he may resume Indian citizenship.

By termination:

If a citizen of India voluntarily acquires the citizenship of another country, then he loses the citizenship of India However, this provision does not apply during times of war.

By deprivation:

Compulsory termination of Indian citizenship by the Central government, in the following conditions:

  • Obtained the citizenship by fraud.
  • Citizen has shown disloyalty to the Constitution of India.
  • Citizen has unlawfully traded or communicated during the times of war.
  • Within 5 years of naturalization, the said citizen is imprisoned for a term of two years.
  • Citizen has been ordinarily resident out of India for a period of 7 years.

What are International Financial Services Centres(IFSC)?

(GS-II: Important International institutions)

In News:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi is set to inaugurate InFinity Forum, a thought leadership Forum on FinTech, on 3rd December.

The event is being hosted by International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), under the aegis of Government of India in collaboration with GIFT City and Bloomberg.

Indonesia, South Africa and the U.K. are partner countries in the first edition of the Forum.

The InFinity Forum:

It will bring together the leading minds of the world in policy, business, and technology to discuss and come up with actionable insight into how technology and innovation can be leveraged by the FinTech industry for inclusive growth and serving humanity at large.

The agenda of the Forum will focus on the theme of ‘Beyond’; with various sub themes including FinTech beyond boundaries, FinTech beyond Finance and FinTech Beyond Next.

The forum will witness participation from over 70 countries.

About IFSCA:

The International Financial Services Centres Authority (IFSCA), headquartered at GIFT City, Gandhinagar Gujarat, has been established under the International Financial Services Centres Authority Act, 2019.

It works as a unified authority for the development and regulation of financial products, financial services and financial institutions in the International Financial Services Centre (IFSC) in India.

What is an IFSC?

An IFSC caters to customers outside the jurisdiction of the domestic economy.

Such centres deal with flows of finance, financial products and services across borders.

London, New York and Singapore can be counted as global financial centres.

Services an IFSC can provide:

  • Fund-raising services for individuals, corporations and governments.
  • Asset management and global portfolio diversification undertaken by pension funds, insurance companies and mutual funds.
  • Wealth management.
  • Global tax management and cross-border tax liability optimization, which provides a business opportunity for financial intermediaries, accountants and law firms.
  • Global and regional corporate treasury management operations that involve fund-raising, liquidity investment and management and asset-liability matching.
  • Risk management operations such as insurance and reinsurance.
  • Merger and acquisition activities among trans-national corporations.

Can an IFSC be set up in a special economic zone (SEZ)?

The SEZ Act 2005 allows setting up an IFSC in an SEZ or as an SEZ after approval from the central government.

IFSCs in India:

The first IFSC in India has been set up at the Gujarat International Finance Tec-City (GIFT City) in Gandhinagar.