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28th September Current Affairs

Right To Get Aid From Govt Not Fundamental Right

(GS-II: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure)

In News:

The Supreme Court has held that the government aid to an institution is a matter of policy and it is not a fundamental right.

What’s the case?

The judgment came on an appeal filed by the Uttar Pradesh’ government challenging the 2018 Allahabad High Court verdict holding that a regulation framed under The Intermediate Education Act, 1921 is unconstitutional. The apex court set aside the HC verdict.

Important observations made by the Court:

Grant of aid brings with it conditions which the institution receiving it is bound to comply with. If an institution does not want to accept the conditions, it can decline the grant but cannot say that the grant must be on its own terms.

A decision to grant aid is by way of policy. While doing so, the government is not only concerned with the interest of the institutions but the ability to undertake such an exercise.

As regards aided institutions, there cannot be any difference between a minority and non-minority one. Article 30 of the Constitution of India is subject to its own restrictions being reasonable.

Constitutional Provisions regarding Minority Educational Institutions:

Article 30(1) recognizes linguistic and religious minorities but not those based on race, ethnicity.

It recognizes the right of religious and linguistic minorities to establish and administer educational institutions, in effect recognizing the role educational institutions play in preserving distinct culture.

A majority community can also establish and administer educational institutions but they will not enjoy special rights under Article 30(1)(a).

Special rights enjoyed by religious minority institutions are:

Under Art 30(1)(a), MEI enjoy right to education as a Fundamental Right. In case the property is taken over by state, due compensation to be provided to establish institutions elsewhere

Under Article 15(5), MEIs are not considered for reservation

Under Right to Education Act, MEI not required to provide admission to children in the age group of 6-14 years upto 25% of enrolment reserved for economically backward section of society

In St Stephens vs Delhi University case, 1992, SC ruled that MEIs can have 50% seats reserved for minorities

In TMA Pai & others vs State of Karnataka & others 2002 case, SC ruled that MEIs can have separate admission process which is fair, transparent and merit based. They can also separate fee structure but should not charge capitation fee.

Swachh Survekshan 2021

(GS-I: Population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies)

In News:

The Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched the seventh consecutive edition of Swachh Survekshan (SS), the world’s largest urban cleanliness survey conducted by Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U).

What’s new in the seventh edition?

Designed with ‘People First’ as its driving philosophy, Swachh Survekshan 2022 is curated towards capturing the initiatives of cities for the overall welfare and well-being of frontline sanitation workers.

The survey, flavoured with the Azaadi@75 spirit, will also give priority to the voices of senior citizens and young adults alike and reinforce their participation towards upholding the cleanliness of urban India.

SS 2022 has incorporated specific indicators that drive cities to improve working conditions and livelihood opportunities for sanitation workers in urban India’s sanitation journey.

The survey is set to protect India’s ancient legacy and culture by nudging citizens to take ownership and initiative to clean urban India’s monuments and heritage spots.

This year’s Survekshan is committed to creating a level playing field for smaller cities by introducing two population categories under 15K and between 15-25K.

To further expand the Survekshan footprint, district rankings have been introduced for the first time.

The scope of the survey has been expanded to now cover 100% wards for sampling, as compared to 40% in previous years.

What is Swachh Survekshan?

Launched by PM Modi in 2016.

It is meant to monitor the performance of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, which was launched on October 2, 2014, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

It was also aimed at inculcating a spirit of healthy competition among cities towards becoming India’s cleanest cities.

Who conducts the survey?

The Quality Council of India (QCI) is in charge of evaluating the performance of the participating cities. This is an autonomous accreditation body which was set up by the Government of India in 1997 for quality assurance in all fields, including governance.

Nuclear site images won’t be shared with IAEA: Iran

(GS-II: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate)

In News:

The EU and the U.S. have urged Iran to allow inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to access a nuclear site, while Tehran argued the facility was exempt from a recent agreement with the UN watchdog.

Background:

IAEA and Tehran struck the three-month monitoring agreement in February to cushion the blow of Iran reducing its cooperation with the agency. The agreement was extended several times.

Implications/concerns:

The announcement could further complicate talks between Iran and six major powers on reviving a 2015 nuclear deal.

Three years ago, former U.S. President Donald Trump withdrew from the pact and reimposed crippling sanctions on Tehran; Iran reacted by violating restrictions.

About IAEA:

  • Set up as the world’s “Atoms for Peace” organization in 1957 within the United Nations family.
  • Reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.
  • Headquarters in Vienna, Austria.

Functions:

  • Works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies.
  • Seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

Programs:

  • Program of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT).
  • Human Health Program.
  • Water Availability Enhancement Project.
  • International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, 2000.

2015 Nuclear Deal:

In 2015, Iran with the P5+1 group of world powers – the USA, UK, France, China, Russia, and Germany agreed on a long-term deal on its nuclear programme.

The deal was named as Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and in common parlance as Iran Nuclear Deal.

Under the deal, Iran agreed to curb its nuclear activity in return for the lifting of sanctions and access to global trade.

The agreement allowed Iran to accumulate small amounts of uranium for research but it banned the enrichment of uranium, which is used to make reactor fuel and nuclear weapons.

Iran was also required to redesign a heavy-water reactor being built, whose spent fuel could contain plutonium suitable for a bomb and to allow international inspections.

Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission

(GS-II: Issues related to Health)

In News:

The Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission was recently launched by PM. The mission will provide a digital health ID to the people who will hold their health records.

Note:

The pilot project of Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission was announced on August 15 last year. Currently, the programme is being implemented in the pilot phase in six union territories (Chandigarh, Ladakh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep).

Features of the Mission:

It is a digital health ecosystem under which every Indian citizen will now have unique health IDs, digitised health records with identifiers for doctors and health facilities.

The scheme will come under the Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana.

It comprises six key building blocks — HealthID, DigiDoctor, Health Facility Registry, Personal Health Records, e-Pharmacy and Telemedicine.

The National Health Authority has been given the mandate to design, build, roll-out and implement the mission in the country.

The core building blocks of the mission is that the health ID, DigiDoctor and Health Facility Registry shall be owned, operated and maintained by the Government of India.

Private stakeholders will have an equal opportunity to integrate and create their own products for the market. The core activities and verifications, however, remain with the government.

Under the Mission, every Indian will get a Health ID card that will store all medical details of the person including prescriptions, treatment, diagnostic reports and discharge summaries.

Health ID is a randomly generated 14 digit number used for the purposes of uniquely identifying persons, authenticating them, and threading their health records (only with their informed consent) across multiple systems and stakeholders.

The citizens will be able to give their doctors and health providers one-time access to this data during visits to the hospital for consultation.

What was the need for this mission?

The mission aims to liberate citizens from the challenges of finding the right doctors, seeking appointment, payment of consultation fee, making several rounds of hospitals for prescription sheets, among several others and will empower people to make an informed decision to avail the best possible healthcare.