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27th February Current Affairs

Supreme Court intrigued by the lack of ‘protection officers’ for domestic violence cases

(GS-II: Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation)

In News:

The SC has sought more information about Mission Shakti because it is concerned about a persistent lack of protection officers to handle domestic violence cases.


Appointment of protection officers (ideally women) is mandated under Section 8 of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005.

These officers have a pivotal role:

  • Help victims file complaints,
  • Give Information to the police,
  • Provide immediate protection and support,
  • Inform victims about their legal rights and
  • Support them through the court proceedings.

With 4.4 lakh cases pending in 801 districts, a protection officer in each of these districts would be saddled with over 500 cases.

Even though Mission Shakti provided for the “one-stop centers” in most of these districts to receive victims, it is unclear how many of them employ protection officers.

The government has also been asked about whether Mission Shakti will serve as an umbrella scheme for implementing the Domestic Violence Act.

The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005:

The law, which is overseen by the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD), provides a definition of “domestic violence” for the first time.

Domestic violence includes not only physical violence, but also emotional, verbal, sexual and psychological abuse.

It is a civil law meant primarily for protection orders, rather than criminal enforcement.

Mission Shakti:

It is an integrated-umbrella scheme of MWCD aimed at strengthening interventions for women safety, security and empowerment during the 15th Finance Commission period 2021-22 to 2025-26.

“Policy Perspective: Debating the road to policy consensus on crypto assets” under G20 India Presidency

(GS-III: Indian Economy and related issues)

In News:

Digital technology is playing an important role in achieving India’s G20 Presidency goal (“Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth, One Family, One Future”).


The Indian Presidency’s priority is to make the digital financial system more efficient, secure, and stable.

For this to happen, financial sector regulatory reforms are essential.

However, there is no comprehensive global policy framework for crypto assets, despite the rapid evolution of the crypto universe.

The global standard-setting bodies (such as the FATF, Financial Stability Board (FSB), Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS), etc) have been coordinating the regulatory agenda.

Probable benefits of crypto assets:

Cheaper and faster cross-border payments

More integrated financial markets

Increased financial inclusion


Greater interconnectedness between crypto assets and the traditional financial sector

Complexity and volatility around crypto assets

Critical digital infrastructure/platforms

Global information gaps pertaining to the crypto asset

Status of Crypto regulation in India:

RBI has announced Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), a sort of official cryptocurrency, for retail as well as wholesale users in 2022 on a pilot basis.

How can the Indian G20 Presidency shape Global Policy Dialogue on Crypto Assets?

Broaden the discussion on crypto assets: Beyond financial integrity concerns and capture the macroeconomic implications and widespread crypto adoption in the economy.

Inform policymakers: On the broader macroeconomic and financial stability implications of crypto assets.

Highlight the consequences of crypto adoption: On the internal and external stability of a country’s economy as well as on the structure of its financial system.

Way Forward:  IMF’s 9 points crypto asset action plan –

  • Safeguard monetary sovereignty and stability by strengthening monetary policy frameworks and do not grant crypto assets legal tender status.
  • Guard against excessive capital flow volatility and maintain the effectiveness of capital flow management measures.
  • Analyse and disclose fiscal risks and adopt unambiguous tax treatment of crypto assets.
  • Establish legal certainty of crypto assets and address legal risks.
  • Develop oversight requirements for all crypto market actors.
  • Establish a joint monitoring framework across different domestic agencies and authorities.
  • Establish international collaborative arrangements.
  • Monitor the impact of crypto assets on the stability of the international monetary system.
  • Strengthen global cooperation to develop digital infrastructures.

Unying Festival

In News:

Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways and Ayush attended the colourful Siang Unying Festival – which is an important festival of the Adi community at Boleng , Arunachal Pradesh.


Unying is a spring festival marking the beginning of the spring season and the new year of the Adi community.

Adi community:

Origin: Southern china in the 16th century.

Inhabitation: lower part of the Lower Dibang Valley district, especially the Roing and Dambuk areas of Arunachal Pradesh.

Occupation: Dependent on agriculture – wet rice cultivation and shifting cultivation.

Experts in making cane and bamboo items.

Other Festivals: Solung(a harvesting festival where animal sacrifices and rituals are performed) and Aran ( a hunting festival where all the male members of the family go hunting) are two major festivals of the Adi tribes.

Solar geoengineering

In News:

Solar geoengineering, also called solar radiation modification, involves cooling the earth by radiating absorbed sunlight back into space.

Types of solar geoengineering  

Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI)

SAI includes spraying large quantities of tiny particles (e.g. of Sulphur Dioxides) into the earth’s stratosphere to reflect sunlight The concept of SAI is derived from sulphur clouds released during volcanic eruptions.

Marine cloud brightening

Marine cloud brightening proposes spraying sea salt into low-lying clouds to increase their brightness and the ability to reflect sunlight.

Why is it controversial?

SAI is particularly controversial because the reflective effect of aerosols wears off after some time, leading to a net heating effect.

According to the Union of Concerned Scientists, solar geoengineering can be a “moral hazard” and slow efforts towards emission reduction as it does not address the root cause of climate change.