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27 July Current Affairs

Namdapha Tiger Reserve

In News:

Conservation of the Royal Bengal Tiger has taken a hit in the Namdapha Tiger Reserve as the authorities have discontinued the services of 53 frontline staff and all casual employees.

About: 

The Namdapha Protected area is a Tiger Reserve and a national park.

Location: 

It is India’s easternmost tiger reserve.

It is located in the Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh near the international border with Myanmar.

The area is located between Dapha Bum ridge of Mishmi Hills, outspurs of North Eastern Himalayas and Patkai Ranges.

Namdapha river:Namdapha is in fact the name of a river which originates from Daphabum and meets Noa-Dehing river. This river flows right across in a North-South direction of the National Park and hence the name Namdapha has been given.

Yamuna Water Conservation Project

In News:

The National Green Tribunal approved the Delhi government’s Yamuna water conservation project.

About:

Objective: The project aims at conserving water in the floodplain between Palla on the Delhi-Haryana border and Wazirabad to deal with the water shortage in the capital, particularly during summers.

Background: The project was first recommended in NGT’s 2015 order, ‘Maily Se Nirmal Yamuna Rejuvenation Plan’. Various academic institutions, such as IIT Delhi, NIH, CGWB, IIT Bombay, WAPCOS and Delhi University, also indicated the potential to store huge amount of water on the floodplain.

Strategy:

Under the plan, Delhi government has proposed to create waterbodies and reservoirs on the Yamuna floodplains.

The reservoirs will store water overflowing from the Yamuna during the monsoon and help recharge groundwater.

Special Courts ForPocso Cases

In News:

The Supreme Court asked the Centre to set up Special Courts in 60 days for POCSO cases.

About: 

The Supreme Court directed the Centre to set up of Centrally-funded Special Court within 60 days in districts with over 100 cases registered under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act.

The Supreme Court asked the Centre to appoint sensitised prosecutors to deal with sexual assault cases against children under POCSO.

The bench also directed the chief secretaries of states and union territories to ensure timely submission of forensic reports in such cases.

The matter has been put up for further hearing on September 26th.

Background: 

The order came on a suomotu Public Interest Litigation (PIL) petition registered by the Supreme Court on the basis of the court’s own report that showed that from January 1 to June 30 this year, 24,212 First Information Reports were filed across India related to Child Rape Incidents.

Till now, the trial courts had decided only 911 cases, that is, about 4% of the total cases registered.

Migration (Census 2011 DATA)

In News:

According to the Census 2011 data on migration released last week, Marriage and employment are the major reasons for migration.

Key Findings: 

Criteria for Migrant: When a person is enumerated in Census at a different place than his/her place of birth, she/he is considered a ‘migrant’.

Number of migrants: Over 45.58 crore Indians were found to be “migrants” during Census 2011. The previous Census (2001) had recorded the number of migrants at 31.45 crore.

Reasons: Marriage and employment are the major reasons for migration.

Trend: The bulk of the migration takes place within individual states — out of the total number of persons registered as “migrants” in the 2011 Census, only 11.91% (5.43 crore) had moved to one state from another, while nearly 39.57 crore had moved within their states.

Scenario in states:

Maharashtra had more migrants from Madhya Pradesh than from Bihar.

Gujarat had almost double the number of migrants from Rajasthan than from Bihar.

UP, from where people travel to all over India in search of work, itself was host to 5.65 crore migrants.

In Assam, where illegal migrations from Bangladesh has long been an issue, Census 2011 recorded 64,117 people who said their last place of residence was in the neighbouring country.

Among the 4.96 lakh migrants from other Indian states in Assam, those from Bihar had the largest stare (1.47 lakh, or nearly 30%).

Comment:

The data come at a time when migration is a major phenomenon across the world, and “illegal Bangladeshis” is a hot-button political issue in India.

The data are also very late — it’s almost time for Census 2021 — and do not reflect the current situation.

‘one nation, one card’

In News:

Trial run of ‘one nation, one card’ scheme begins.

Details:

The State’s model of portability of ration cards enabling people to get the commodities supplied through the Public Distribution System from anywhere across the State through the same ration card has become an inspiration for the country. The project has become a key component of the Central government’s proposal for introducing “one-nation-one-card” project to be implemented across the country from June next year, the department said. The Centre decided to implement the one-nation-one-card project on a pilot basis in two clusters comprising Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra and Gujarat from August 1.

About the scheme:

One Nation One Ration Card (RC) will ensure all beneficiaries especially migrants can access PDS across the nation from any PDS shop of their own choice.

Benefits: no poor person is deprived of getting subsidised foodgrains under the food security scheme when they shift from one place to another. It also aims to remove the chance of anyone holding more than one ration card to avail benefits from different states.

Significance: This will provide freedom to the beneficiaries as they will not be tied to any one PDS shop and reduce their dependence on shop owners and curtail instances of corruption.

CRZ Regulations

In News:

The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has notified the 2019 Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) norms, replacing the existing CRZ norms of 2011.

Details:

The new CRZ norms have been issued under Section 3 of the Environment Protection Act, 1986.

The new CRZ norms aim to promote sustainable development based on scientific principles.

Objective of CRZ Regulations 2019:

To promote sustainable development based on scientific principles taking into account the natural hazards such as increasing sea levels due to global warming.

To conserve and protect the environment of coastal stretches and marine areas, besides livelihood security to the fisher communities and other local communities in the coastal area.

Salient Features of CRZ Regulations 2019:

Two separate categories for CRZ-III (Rural) areas:

CRZ-III A: The A category of CRZ-III areas are densely populated rural areas with a population density of 2161 per square kilometre as per 2011 Census. Such areas have a No Development Zone (NDZ) of 50 meters from the High Tide Line (HTL) as against 200 meters from the High Tide Line stipulated in the CRZ Notification, 2011.

CRZ-III B – The B category of CRZ-III rural areas have population density of below 2161 per square kilometre as per 2011 Census. Such areas have a No Development Zone of 200 meters from the HTL.

Floor Space Index Norms eased: As per CRZ, 2011 Notification, the Floor Space Index (FSI) or the Floor Area Ratio (FAR) had been frozen. As per the latest notification, the government has decided to de-freeze the Floor Space Index and permit FSI for construction projects.

Tourism infrastructure permitted in coastal areas: The new norms permit temporary tourism facilities such as shacks, toilet blocks, change rooms, drinking water facilities, etc. in Beaches.

Streamlining of CRZ Clearances: The procedure for CRZ clearances has been streamlined. Now, the only such projects which are located in the CRZ-I (Ecologically Sensitive Areas) and CRZ IV (area covered between Low Tide Line and 12 Nautical Miles seaward) will be dealt with for CRZ clearance by the Ministry. The powers for clearances with respect to CRZ-II and III have been delegated at the State level.

No Development Zone of 20 meters for all Islands: For islands close to the main land coast and for all Backwater Islands in the main land, No Development Zone of 20 meters has been stipulated in wake of space limitations and unique geography of such regions.

Pollution abatement: To address pollution in Coastal areas, the treatment facilities have been made permissible in CRZ-I B area subject to necessary safeguards.

Critically Vulnerable Coastal Areas (CVCA):Sundarban region of West Bengal and other ecologically sensitive areas identified as under Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 such as Gulf of Khambat and Gulf of Kutchh in Gujarat, Achra-Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, Karwar and Coondapur in Karnataka, Vembanad in Kerala, Gulf of Mannar in Tamil Nadu, Bhaitarkanika in Odisha and Krishna in Andhra Pradesh are treated as Critical Vulnerable Coastal Areas. These Critical Vulnerable Coastal Areas will be managed with the involvement of coastal communities including fisher folk.

20th anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas celebrated

In News:

Kargil Vijay Diwas is celebrated across India on 26 July every year to remember victory of Indian Armed Forces in Operation Vijay in 1999 against infiltrating Pakistani troops. The year 2019, marks 20th anniversary of victory in Operation VIJAY popularly known as Kargil War, and is being celebrated with theme- Remember, Rejoice and Renew.

About Kargil Vijay Diwas:

Objective behind celebrating Kargil Vijay Diwas is to evoke feeling of nationalism and patriotism through nationwide campaigns especially amongst youth and to pay homage to valiant soldiers.

Celebrations:

The annual observance of anniversary is to show respect and gratitude to brave servicemen of armed forces who laid down their lives in re-capturing all positions that were then infiltrated & seized by Pakistan Army.

It is celebrated with heavy enthusiasm and vigor by military personnel at Dras-Kargil sector and New Delhi at Amar Jawan Jyoti, India Gate.

20th Anniversary celebrations of Kargil Vijay Diwas: began in New Delhi on 14 July 2019. The Victory Flame traversed through 11 towns and cities and finally reached Dras where it was received from Major DP Singh and passed on to Param Veer Chakra awardee Yogendra Yadav and then to Chief of Indian Army Bipin Rawat to merge at Kargil War Memorial with eternal flame.

About Operation Vijay (Kargil War):

It was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place in Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along Line of Control (LOC).

It was fought for over 60 days (between May and July 1999) and ended with India regaining control of all previously held territory. In 60- day long conflict, the victory of Tiger Hill was one of the crucial achievements.

Remembrance: Operation Vijay will always be remembered for its self-imposed national strategy of restraint in keeping war limited to Kargil-Siachen Sectors (of Kashmir), strategic and tactical surprises and the way in which tri-services military strategy and plans were swiftly executed.

Private member’s Bill

In News:

Equating the expenditure limit on election expenses with prohibition, Congress MP moved a private member’s bill in the Rajya Sabha that seeks removal of the limit and state funding of elections as part of reforms to the way polls are financed in India.

Who is a Private Member? Any MP who is not a Minister is referred to as a private member.

What are Government Bills?

Bills introduced by Ministers are referred to as government bills.

They are backed by the government, and reflect its legislative agenda. Private member’s bills purpose is to draw the government’s attention to what individual MPs see as issues and gaps in the existing legal framework, which require legislative intervention.

Introduction in the House:

The admissibility of a private member’s Bill is decided by the Rajya Sabha Chairman. In the case of Lok Sabha, it is the Speaker; the procedure is roughly the same for both Houses.

The Member must give at least a month’s notice before the Bill can be listed for introduction; the House secretariat examines it for compliance with constitutional provisions and rules on legislation before listing.

Up to 1997, private members could introduce up to three Bills in a week. This led to a piling up of Bills that were introduced but never discussed; Chairman K R Narayanan, therefore, capped the number of private member’s Bills to three per session.

While government Bills can be introduced and discussed on any day, private member’s Bills can be introduced and discussed only on Fridays.

Fourteen private member’s Bills — five of which were introduced in Rajya Sabha — have become law so far.

 

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