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25th February Current Affairs

The Foundational Literacy and Numeracy Report

(GS-II: Issues Relating to Development and Management of Social Sector/Services relating to Education)

In News:

The 2nd edition of the Foundational Literacy and Numeracy (FLN) report was released by Dr Bibek Debroy, Chairman EAC-PM.


It is the ability of a child (between the ages of 3 and 8 years old) to read basic texts and do basic mathematical problems such as addition and subtraction.

It is one of the main elements of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020.

About the FLN report:

It is a benchmark for states and UTs to track their performance in achieving universal foundational learning by 2026-27.

Its findings cover the role of nutrition, access to digital technology and language-focused instructional approach.

It captures:

  • The role of language in education and highlights distinct challenges faced in a multilingual environment.
  • The fundamental concepts children require to become skilled readers.
  • Improving the learning outcomes using appropriate assessments and medium of instruction.


Need to integrate the medium of instruction and teaching in languages familiar to children.

Undertake various assessments pertaining to the –

  • Linguistic system (includes phonology, vocabulary/lexicon, and syntax),
  • Orthographic system (includes symbols and mapping principles), and
  • Writing mechanisms

Need for data monitoring along with clearly defined outcome-based indicators on pedagogical framework and education in India.

Initiatives to promote FLN:

DIKSHA or Digital Infrastructure for Knowledge Sharing: Launched in 2017, it is a national platform of the NCERT, where teachers can find interactive and engaging teaching material to make their classes interesting.

NIPUN Bharat Mission: Launched in 2021 for ensuring that every child in the country necessarily attains foundational literacy by the end of the third grade by the year 2026-27.

NISHTHA: A new training program (in FLN) for the teachers, as well as the heads of the school launched by the NCERT.

The National Curriculum Framework for Foundational Skills 2022: To meet a key focus area of the NEP 2020, to improve the foundational skills of students.

Under this, ‘jadui pitara’ – learning and teaching material for the foundational stage of schooling, has been launched recently.


FLN is linked to the health and economic growth of a nation. So, developing curriculum, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, is the need of the hour.

COP-28 (Dubai) must focus on adaptation instead of mitigation, says India

(GS-III: Environment Conservation/ Disaster Management)

In News:

The concepts of mitigation and adaptation are at the heart of international climate discourse.

Adaptation measures for climate change:

Adaptation refers to adjustments in ecological, social, or economic systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli and their effects or impacts. It focuses on assisting countries that are most vulnerable to the effects of climate change (coastal states, island nations) with finance and infrastructural assistance.

Reason for Focusing on the adaptation of climate Change:

  • Can help manage the risks from climate disasters such as floods and droughts
  • Sponge cities concept to increase storing of water in city spaces to adapt to urban floods
  • Protection of ecosystems
  • Protecting agriculture and food security
  • Can allow populations to benefit from opportunities for climatic change.

Mitigation measures for climate change:

Mitigation refers to actions taken to lower the concentration of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere and thereby reduce the extent to which the global climate system changes.

Reason for Focusing on Mitigation of Climate Change:

  • To stabilize greenhouse gas levels in a sufficient time frame
  • Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+)
  • Avoid significant human interference with the earth’s climate
  • Enable economic development

Why India is pushing to focus on Adaptation:

Timeframe: Mitigation measures can take decades to have a significant impact but the impacts of climate change are already being felt and will continue to worsen in the short to medium term, making adaptation measures more urgent.

The scale of impact: Adaptation measures can help reduce vulnerability and minimize the negative impacts of climate change.

Political will: Adaptation measures, can be implemented at a local level and may be more feasible to achieve.

Co-benefits: improving public health, enhancing ecosystem services, and increasing resilience to other natural disasters.


While adaptation is important, it should not be seen as a substitute for mitigation. Both strategies are needed to address the challenges of climate change and ensure a sustainable future for our planet.


In News:

Over 40% of gram panchayats do not report digital attendance.


Recently,  the government made it mandatory that the attendance for Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) workers be captured through a mobile application, National Mobile Monitoring System (NMMS).

Only community work under MGNREGS requires NMMS.

According to Ministry officials, an average of 85% of MGNREGS worksites currently use the NMMS app to collect data.

About NMMS:

The NMMS App was launched by the Minister of Rural Development on May 21 2021. This app is aimed at bringing more transparency and ensuring proper monitoringof the schemes.

It permits taking real-time attendance of workersat Mahatma Gandhi NREGA worksites along with a geo-tagged photograph.

The app helps in increasing citizen oversightof the programme.

The App is applicable for the Mahatma Gandhi NREGA workersfor all the States/ Union Territories.

Chicago Convention on international civil aviation

In News:

The Union government cleared three protocols related to amendments in Chicago Convention.


It would help India to become more instrumental in matters pertaining to international civil aviation.

Ratified Protocols:

Amend Article 3 (refrain member States from use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight).

Amend Article 50 (a) for raising the strength of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Council).

Amend Article 56 (for raising the strength of the Air Navigation Commission).

About ICAO:

The International Civil Aviation Organization (est. 1944, HQ: Montreal, Canada) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (linked to ECOSOC) that coordinates the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth.

It has 193 state parties including all UN members except Liechtenstein.

Chicago Convention led to the creation of ICAO.

India is a founding member of ICAO.

It is not a global regulator, its standards never supersede the primacy of national regulatory requirements.