Dhrupad is the most ancient style of Hindustani classical music that has survived until today in its original form.
The nature of Dhrupad music is spiritual. It does not seek to entertain, but to induce feelings of peace and spirituality in the listener.
It is primarily a form of worship, in which offerings are made to the divine through sound or Nada.
Dhrupad was initially sung only in the temples, the singer facing the Lord. From this early chanting, Dhrupad evolved into a sophisticated classical form of music.
It lays emphasis on maintaining purity of the Raga.
The language of Dhrupad changed from Sanskrit to Brij Bhasha sometime between the 12th and the 16th century.
It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of SamVeda. The SAM VEDA was chanted with the help of melody and rhythm called Samgana. Gradually this developed into other vocal style called ‘Chhanda’ and ‘Prabandha’ with introduction of verse and meter. The fusion of these two elements led to the emergence of Dhrupad.
Dhrupad during mediaeval times:
In medieval India, Dhrupad had mainly thrived under the patronage of Mughal and Rajput kings. Later it declined with the shift of interest in Khayal.
Performance of Dhrupad is done in two parts viz. the Alap and Bandish. In the Alap, the singer uses syllables from Sanskrit Mantra which add texture to the notes. The Raga is slowly and methodically developed in a meditative mode.
Pakistan has decided to elevate Gilgit-Baltistan’s status to that of a full-fledged province.
However, India has clearly conveyed to Pakistan that the entire union territories of Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh, including the areas of Gilgit and Baltistan, are an integral part of the country by virtue of its fully legal and irrevocable accession.
What’s the issue?
Gilgit-Baltistan has functioned as a “provincial autonomous region” since 2009.
It is controlled by Pakistan.
Besides, in a recent order, the Pakistan Supreme Court also allowed the amendment to the Government of Gilgit-Baltistan Order of 2018 to conduct the general elections in the region.
Where is Gilgit Baltistan located?
It borders China in the North, Afghanistan in the west and Kashmir in the south east.
It shares a geographical boundary with Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, and India considers it as part of the undivided Jammu and Kashmir, while Pakistan sees it as a separate from PoK.
It has a regional Assembly and an elected Chief Minister.
China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) passes through this region.
The region is home to five of the “eight-thousanders” and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft).
Three of the world’s longest glaciers outside the polar regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan.
How Pakistan took over it?
The British sold it, along with the rest of Jammu and Kashmir, to the Dogra ruler of Jammu, Gulab Singh, after defeating the Sikh army in 1846, but retained controlled over the area through a lease extracted from the Maharaja.
This lease was last renewed in 1935. In 1947, a British army officer of the rank of Colonel imprisoned Maharaja Hari Singh’s governor in the region, and handed over the area for accession to Pakistan.
Gilgit- Baltistan is part of J&K and any such move would seriously damage Pakistan’s Kashmir case. Two UN resolutions of August 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949 clearly established a link between GB and the Kashmir issue.
Making the region its fifth province would thus violate the Karachi Agreement — perhaps the only instrument that provides doubtful legal authority to Pakistan’s administration of GB — as well as the UN resolutions that would damage its position on the Kashmir issue.
Any such move would also be violative of the 1963 Pak-China Boundary Agreement that calls for the sovereign authority to reopen negotiations with China “after the settlement of the Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India” and of the 1972 Simla Agreement that mentions that “neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation”.
As per the information provided by Union Minister of Textiles, under Samarth, 18 State Governments have been allocated a training target of 3.6 lakh beneficiaries for conducting training programme in traditional and organized sectors.
About Samarth Scheme:
Also known as the ‘Scheme for Capacity Building in Textile Sector (SCBTS)’.
Implemented by the Ministry of Textiles.
It seeks to Provide demand driven, placement oriented National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) compliant skilling programmes.
To train 10.00 lakh persons (9 lakhs in organised & 1 lakh in traditional sector) excluding Spinning & Weaving in the organized Sector.
Training of Trainers (ToT).
Aadhar Enabled Biometric Attendance System (AEBAS).
CCTV recording of training programme.
Dedicated call centre with helpline number.
Institutions/Organization of the Ministry of Textiles/State Governments having training infrastructure and placement tie-ups with textile industry.
Reputed training institutions/ NGOs/ Societies/ Trusts/ Organizations/ Companies /Start Ups / Entrepreneurs active in textile sector having placement tie-ups with textile industry.
Blue flag programme
On the occasion of International Coastal Clean-Up Day (Celebrated since 1986), for the first time eight beaches of India are recommended for the coveted International eco-label, the Blue flag certification.
International Coastal Clean-Up Day is marked each year on the third Saturday of September as an initiative of the Washington-based Ocean Conservancy, a volunteer effort for ocean health.
The eight beaches recommended are:
Shivrajpur in Gujarat, Ghoghla in Daman and Diu, Kasarkod and Padubidri in Karnataka, Kappad in Kerala, Rushikonda in Andhra Pradesh, Golden in Odisha and Radhanagar in Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
About Blue flag programme:
The Blue Flag Programme for beaches and marinas is run by the international, non-governmental, non-profit organisation FEE (the Foundation for Environmental Education).
It started in France in 1985 and has been implemented in Europe since 1987, and in areas outside Europe since 2001, when South Africa joined.
The ‘Blue Flag’ beach is an ‘eco-tourism model’ and marks out beaches as providing tourists and beachgoers clean and hygienic bathing water, facilities/amenities, a safe and healthy environment, and sustainable development of the area.
Japan and South Korea are the only countries in South and southeastern Asia to have Blue Flag beaches.
Spain tops the list with 566 such beaches; Greece and France follow with 515 and 395, respectively.
There are nearly 33 criteria that must be met to qualify for a Blue Flag certification, such as the water meeting certain quality standards, having waste disposal facilities, being disabled- friendly, have first aid equipment, and no access to pets in the main areas of the beach. Some criteria are voluntary and some compulsory.
Beaches identified in India:
13 pilot beaches have been identified for the certification.
Chandrabhaga beach of Odisha’s Konark coast is the first to complete the tag certification process.