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23rd June Current Affairs

Centre mandates 3-yr health insurance plan for surrogate mothers

(GS-II: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources)

In News:

The government has issued fresh surrogacy rules, making it mandatory for couples who wish to become parents through surrogacy to buy health insurance plans for surrogate mothers for a period of 36 months.


Limited attempts: The government has also ensured that the number of attempts of any surrogacy procedure on the surrogate mother shall not be more than three times.

Allowed abortion: A surrogate mother may be allowed for abortion during the process of surrogacy in case of any complication as advised by the doctors

Regulation of private clinics: Every private surrogacy clinic has to file an application for registration with a fee of ₹2 lakh which is non-refundable. However, facilities under government-run institutes are exempt from such fees.

Specialist availability: Surrogacy clinics shall have at least one gynaecologist, one anaesthetist, one embryologist and one counsellor.

Marriage period: The couple should be married for more than five years.

Consent of surrogate: Under the Surrogacy Rules 2022, a surrogate mother has to give her consent through an agreement for giving up all her rights over the child and shall hand over the child/children as soon as she is permitted to do so by the hospital.

Counter view: Some experts have highlighted that health insurance coverage for 36 months which includes the postpartum expense for surrogate mother is a long period as it will unnecessarily burden the intending couple.

Powers of Governor, floor test law in the spotlight

(GS-II: Parliament and state legislature: structure, functioning, the conduct of business, powers and privileges)

In News:

In Maharashtra as the Chief Minister possibly loses the majority, the Governor’s powers under the Constitution to call for a floor test take centre stage.


Article 174(2)(b) of the Constitution gives powers to the Governor to dissolve the Assembly on the aid and advice of the cabinet.

However, the Governor can apply his mind when the advice comes from a Chief Minister whose majority could be in doubt.

Constitutional Provisions Related to Governor’s Role in Calling an Assembly Session:

Article 174: Says that the Governor shall from time to time summon the House or each House of the Legislature of the State to meet at such time and place as he thinks fit.

The provision also puts on the Governor the responsibility of ensuring that the House is summoned at least once every six months.

Article 163: Although it is the Governor’s prerogative to summon the House, according to Article 163, the Governor is required to act on the “aid and advice” of the Cabinet.

So when the Governor summons the House under Article 174, this is not of his or her own will but on the aid and advice of the Cabinet.

Exception: When the Chief Minister appears to have lost the majority and the legislative members of the House propose a no-confidence motion against the Chief Minister, then the Governor can decide on his or her own on summoning the House.

The actions of the Governor, when using his discretionary powers, can be challenged in court.

A six-fold rise in heart attacks

(GS-III: General Science)

In News:

India’s financial capital Mumbai witnessed a six-fold rise in deaths related to heart attacks in the first six months of 2021 when the city was under the grip of the second wave of Covid-19.

What are the factors behind the spike in cases?

Post-Covid development of thrombosis: SARS-Cov-2 damages the heart and blood vessels in infected patients which leads to the development of clots, heart inflammation, arrhythmias, and heart failure

Thrombosis occurs when blood clots block veins or arteries

Covid-19 can also cause microvascular damages, which may have also contributed to heart ailments

Additional distress was noticed in during the pandemic: Anxiety and stress levels further added to the heart ailments.

Delay in diagnosis of heart-related ailment amid the second wave: During the second wave, many patients avoided hospitals due to fear of contracting Covid-19, which further delayed life-saving treatment.

Reperfusion therapies like Thrombolytic therapy (that dissolves clots) and timely interventions like angioplasty (the procedure used to widen blocked or narrowed coronary arteries) were delayed

Better recording of heart-attack cases: since the start of the pandemic, medical practitioners are more conscious of segregation and bifurcation of types of deaths as well as maintaining better data related to heart attacks.

Major lifestyle changes: Life has become more sedentary with fewer options for socialisation and physical activities.

Doctors have witnessed an increase in the prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, alcohol use and an unhealthy lifestyle in the last two years.

Indians have a genetic predisposition, smaller coronary arteries, a diet pattern with excessive consumption of trans fats and a sedentary lifestyle that puts them in a high-risk category for heart attacks.

Australia says LAC assault was a warning

(GS-II: Bilateral, regional and global grouping and agreements)

In News:

The assault on Indian forces along the Line of Actual Control in 2020 was a “warning we should all heed”, and Australia stood up for India’s sovereignty, Australian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defense.


He was referring to the standoff in eastern Ladakh and the clash in Galway Which led to the death of 20 Indian soldiers.

India is also set to participate in Australia’s Indo-Pacific Endeavour exercise in October 2022.

Line of Actual Control(LAC):

Demarcation Line: The Line of Actual Control (LAC) is the demarcation that separates Indian-controlled territory from Chinese-controlled territory.

LAC is different from the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan:

The LoC emerged from the 1948 ceasefire line negotiated by the United Nations (UN) after the Kashmir War.

It was designated as the LoC in 1972, following the Shimla Agreement between the two countries. It is delineated on a map signed by the Director-General of Military Operations (DGMO) of both armies and has the international sanctity of a legal agreement.

The LAC, in contrast, is only a concept – it is not agreed upon by the two countries, neither delineated on a map nor demarcated on the ground.

Length of the LAC: India considers the LAC to be 3,488 km long, while the Chinese consider it to be only around 2,000 km.

Indo-Pacific Endeavour exercise:

It Involves exercises and cooperation with 7 countries in the IOR including Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, and Singapore.

AUSINDEX 2019, the bilateral naval exercise between India and Australia held in April 2019 was also a part of Indo-Pacific Endeavour 2019 of Australia.