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22nd September Current Affairs

A risky new status quo

(GS-II: Bilateral, regional and global groupings involving India and affecting India’s interests etc)

In News:

India and China completed disengagement in Patrolling Point 15 (PP15), pulling troops back to create a demilitarized buffer zone.

Issues associated with buffer zone creation:

Patrolling: It inhibits India’s ability to patrol its own territory.

Limits activities: The buffer zones and Depsang’s status limit India’s military activities near the LAC.

Issues still persisting between India and China:

No return back: The reinforcements that each side deployed since 2020 have not returned to the garrison.

Military infrastructure: Both sides have raced to build permanent military infrastructure near the border.

Claim over Arunachal Pradesh: China still claims Arunachal Pradesh as its own.

Strategic implications for India:

Reassignment: India has reassigned one of three originally Pakistan-facing Strike Corps to the China front.

Newest artillery and other equipment: It has deployed its newest artillery, fighter jets, and drones to the China border.


Asian balance of power: The capabilities to project military force across the Ocean, coerce or defend smaller regional States, and establish an enduring strategic presence there, will determine the Asian balance of power.

Continued “disengagement and de-escalation: This could be a golden opportunity for Indian planners to work towards long-term military modernisation and political influence across the Indian Ocean region.

More teeth and bigger muscles

(GS-II: Statutory, regulatory and various constitutional bodies etc)

In News:

Since 2014, the Directorate of Enforcement (ED) has investigated 121 prominent politicians and has arrested, questioned, raided, or filed FIRs against 115 major Opposition leaders.

Analysis of Powers with ED:

Power Contrary to CBI: Unlike agencies, particularly the CBI, the PMLA allows the ED to take cognizance of any offence with or without the consent of state governments.

Powers contrary to NIA: The types of offences that NIA can investigate are limited to about a dozen offences compared to ED which enjoys a wide-ranging schedule across the country.

Wider extent: The ED’s ambit extends from serious crimes such as terrorism to the hunting of wild animals, and from the infringement of copyright to false trademarks.

Other powers under PMLA:

It gives investigators the power to arrest and attach properties and assets of accused

Impose stringent bail conditions

Make a statement recorded before an investigating officer admissible in court as evidence

Powers through various amendments:

‘Criminal conspiracy’ under Section 120B of IPC: It was added to the PMLA’s schedule among various other offences.

International jurisdiction: For tracking laundered money

Amendments in 2015 and 2018: The ED was allowed to attach properties in India equivalent to properties acquired abroad through laundered money.

Explanations inserted into the PMLA in 2019: The government allowed the ED to attach properties earned directly or indirectly through alleged criminal activity.

Issues with the PMLA:

Statement admissible: It is the only Act in the country in which a statement recorded before an investigating officer is admissible in court as evidence.

Strict bail conditions: SC upheld the validity of all the provisions of the PMLA, including strict bail conditions in money laundering cases.

State of education report for India 2022

In News:

UNESCO has released the State of education report for India 2022: Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education


India has the highest relative AI skill penetration rate ( over 3 times the global average)

AI literacy is increasing and is important for India

India has a one-size-fits-all approach: Using personalized and intelligent AI-based tutoring will help learning become diversified

India should:

Consider teaching Ethics of AI

Correct Algorithmic biases and discrimination in AI

Involve the private sector and PPP in developing AI-based products.

Use AI for equality, equity, inclusion and improved learning outcomes

Use AI for the inclusion of linguistic diversity


India lacks policies for AI in education

Lack of digital infrastructure

Increasing use of AI for fakes, cheating

Focus on memorization-based education (instead of critical thinking)

Government steps:

NEP 2020 emphasises using digital tools ( including AI) in education for meeting the skill-based demands of Industry 4.0.

CBSE has AI as an elective subjectfor its ninth-grade classes.

National Program on AI

AIRAWAT (Artificial Intelligence Research, Analytics and Knowledge Assimilation Platform)

National Strategy for AI


Government should consider AI with the aim of 5 ‘I’s that stand for Inclusiveness, Indigenization, Innovation, Investment in infrastructure & International cooperation.

About the report:

It is the 4th edition of the annual report of UNESCO with the aim of increasing the application of AI in education in India.


The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  (founded in 1945, Hq: Paris) is a specialised agency of the United Nations aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, arts, sciences and culture.

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

In News:

Government expenditure on early childhood education a mere 0.1% of GDP: report by Centre for budget and governance and Save the Children


The government expenditure in India on ECCE for children between the age of three years and six years is a mere 0.1% of the GDP (the USA is 0.33%, Finland is 0.71% of GDP)

India has nearly 99mn children in the age group of 3-6 years.

Allocation of children is highest in Himachal Pradesh and lowest in Meghalaya

Meaning of ECCE:

Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) in the Indian context is generally defined as the care and education of children from birth to eight years. It includes Early stimulation programmes through crèches/homes stimulation for 0-3-year-olds.

Government steps:

The National Education Policy 2020 aims to universalise ECE by 2030 in line with Sustainable Development Goal 4

NCERT will create a National Curricular and Pedagogical Framework for ECCE (NCPFECCE) to guide teachers and stress the need for developing a workforce trained for ECE.

SARTHAQ:- ‘Students’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement through Quality Education – (Implementation plan for National Education Policy 2020) School Education

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan, ICDS and National Health Mission.