19th September Current Affairs
September 19, 2022
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September 21, 2022
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20th September Current Affairs

Global Registry of Fossil Fuels

In News:

Climate campaigners have launched the world’s first registry of fossil fuel reserves, production and emissions.


The Global Registry of Fossil Fuels is the first large-scale public database to track what is yet to be burned.

Carbon Tracker, a nonprofit think tank that researches the energy transition’s effect on financial markets, and the Global Energy Monitor, which tracks a range of global energy projects, jointly developed the registry.

These organizations hope the registry will empower groups to hold governments accountable in a range of scenarios, for example, when issuing licenses for fossil fuel extraction.

The inventory includes data from more than 50,000 oil, gas and coal fields in 89 countries, covering 75 per cent of global production.

With the Registry, it will be much easier to include expected future emissions into the analysis, and thus identify and prioritize the companies with the greatest risk of harbouring assets likely to become stranded.

Death penalty

In News:

The Supreme Court referred to a Constitution Bench on the question of how to provide accused in death penalty cases a “meaningful, real and effective” hearing of their mitigating circumstances before a trial judge.

Key Highlights:

Valuable right: A three-judge Bench led by the Chief Justice of India said the presentation of mitigating factors by an accused to avoid the “extreme penalty of death” was a “valuable right”.

Section 354 (3) of the CrPC, 1973: The courts are required to state reasons in writing for awarding the maximum penalty.

Bachan Singh vs State of Punjab (1980):

The doctrine of “rarest of rare: This verdict established the doctrine of “rarest of rare” crime in handing down capital punishment while mandating a comparative analysis of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in connection to the accused.

Machi Singh vs State of Punjab (1983):

Guiding principles for death sentence: In this case, the Supreme Court elucidated the doctrine of “rarest of rare” and set down some guiding principles in death sentence cases.

The aggravating circumstances included:

  • The manner in which the crime was committed
  • The motive for committing the crime
  • The severity of the crime
  • The victim of the crime.

The mitigating circumstances consisted of:

  • The possibility of reformation and rehabilitation of an accused
  • His/her mental health and his antecedents.

MHA notification of Convicts Biometrics

In News:

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has notified the rules governing The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 that would enable police and central investigating agencies to collect, store and analyze physical and biological samples including retina and iris scans of arrested persons.

Key Highlights:

Procedure: The rules do not mention the procedure to be adopted for convicted persons.

Serious offence or court order: The measurements of persons detained under various preventive detention laws shall not be taken unless clubbed with a serious offence or ordered by a court.

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB): under the MHA will direct States on how to collect and store the information.

Sections 53 and 53A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973: The rules say that the record of measurements shall be stored and preserved in a secure and encrypted format as specified in the Standard Operating Procedures by the NCRB from “time to time.

Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Information Technology Act, 2000: Unauthorized access, distribution or sharing of data collected under the Act shall be punishable as per the laws.

Measurements” includes:

  • Finger-impressions
  • Palm-print and Foot-print
  • Photographs
  • Iris and retina scan
  • Physical, biological samples and their analysis
  • Behavioural attributes including signatures, handwriting or any other examination.

Indian Swachhata League

In News:

SBM-Urban 2.0’s maiden edition of ‘Indian Swachhata League’ has mobilized half a million youths and celebrities toward making cities clean, green, and garbage free.

About Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban 2.0:

SBM-U 2.0, announced in Budget 2021-22, is the continuation of SBM-U’s first phase (launched from 2014 to 2019). The government is trying to tap safe containment, transportation, disposal of faecal sludge, and septage from toilets.

Aim: It envisions to

  • make all cities ‘Garbage Free’
  • ensure grey and black water management in all cities other than those covered under AMRUT
  • make all urban local bodies as ODF+
  • make those with a population of less than 1 lakh as ODF++

Timeline: over five years from 2021 to 2026

Nodal Ministry: Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).

Changes in IBC

In  News:

The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has amended the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) with the aim to hasten the changes and maximize recovery.

Key changes:

If there is no resolution plan, creditors can sell assets separately.

The performance-based pay structure for Resolution professionals.

The primary role of the Resolution Professional is to ensure the revival of the corporate debtor.

About IBC:

It was introduced in 2016 to tackle bad loans and solve insolvencies.

In accounting, insolvency is the state of being unable to pay the debts, of a person or company, at maturity; those in a state of insolvency are said to be insolvent.

Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) bill, 2021:

It proposed the Pre-packaged Insolvency Resolution Process (PIRP), also called ‘pre-packs’ as an insolvency resolution mechanism for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).

PM PRANAM scheme

In News:

PM PRANAM (Promotion of Alternate Nutrients for Agriculture Management Yojana) has been planned to reduce the use of chemical fertilisers by incentivising states

Features of the scheme:

No separate budget: The scheme will not have a separate budget and will be financed by the “savings of existing fertiliser subsidy” under schemes run by the Department of fertilisers.

50% subsidy savings will be passed on as a grant to the state that saves the money

  • 70% of the grant provided under the scheme can be used for asset creation (adoption of alternate fertilisers at the village, block and district levels)
  • 30% grant money can be used for incentivising farmers, panchayats, FPOs and self-help groups that are involved in the reduction of fertiliser use and awareness generation.

Data available on a fertiliser Ministry dashboard, iFMS (Integrated fertilisers Management System), will be used for this purpose.

Status of Fertilizer use and subsidy:

The total requirement of four fertilisers — Urea, DAP (Di-ammonium Phosphate), MOP (Muriate of potash), and NPKS (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) — increased by 21% between 2017-2018 and 2021-2022.

The subsidy burden on chemical fertilisers is expected to increase to Rs 2.25 lakh crore in 2022-2023, which is 39% higher than the previous year’s figure of Rs 1.62 lakh crore.

The Kharif season (June-October) accounts for nearly half the year’s production of foodgrains, one-third of pulses and approximately two-thirds of oilseeds. A sizable amount of fertiliser is required for this season.