19th May Current Affairs 2023
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20th May 2023 – Current Affairs

Centre writes to states to curb trend of unnecessary hysterectomies


The Ministry of Health has communicated with all relevant parties, urging them to collaborate in addressing the issue of unnecessary hysterectomies performed by specific medical institutions.

 What is hysterectomy?
  • Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus, and sometimes surrounding organs and tissues.
  • Main types of hysterectomy include:
    • Total hysterectomy:The entire uterus, including the cervix, is removed. The ovaries and fallopian tubes may or may not be removed along with the uterus.
    • Partial hysterectomy:This surgery involves removing the upper part of the uterus while leaving the cervix intact.
    • Radical hysterectomy: It involves the removal of the uterus, cervix, the upper part of the vagina, and nearby tissues, such as lymph nodes.
  • These procedures may be done through the vagina (with no incisions in the abdomen) or through an incision (cut) in the abdomen.
  • The procedure is carried out under the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana as well as other government schemes related to healthcare.

What is the issue?

  • Health threats (due to unawareness):Women who could have been offered alternative treatments were unnecessarily subjected to hysterectomies, posing significant risks to their health.
    • Most women who were subjected to hysterectomies of this kind belonged to the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, or Other Backward Communities.
  • Misuse:Several healthcare institutions misuse the procedure only to claim high insurance fees from governments under various health insurance schemes.
  • Threat to health rights: There has been a serious violation of the fundamental rights of the women (Article 21) who underwent unnecessary hysterectomies.


Gujarat working to become India’s Green Hydrogen Hub 


Gujarat is initiating the process to establish itself as India’s primary hub for green hydrogen production, aiming to maintain its leading position in the industrial sector.

Why the focus is on ‘green hydrogen’?

  • India has set its sight on becoming energy independent by 2047 and achievingNet Zero by 2070.
  • To achieve this target, increasing renewable energy use across all economic spheres is central toIndia’s Energy Transition.
  • Green Hydrogen is considered a promising alternative for enabling this transition.
  • Hydrogen is the simplest and smallest element in the periodic table. No matter how it is produced, it ends up with the same carbon-free molecule.
  • Hydrogen can be utilized for:
    • long-duration storage of renewable energy
    • replacement of fossil fuels in industry
    • clean transportation
    • decentralized power generation, aviation, and marine transport

National Green Hydrogen Mission

  • TheNational Green Hydrogen Mission was approved by the Union Cabinet on 4 January 2022, with the intended objectives of:
    • Making India a leading producer and supplier of Green Hydrogen in the world
    • Creation of export opportunities for Green Hydrogen and its derivatives
    • Reduction in dependence on imported fossil fuels and feedstock
    • Development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities
    • Attracting investment and business opportunities for the industry
    • Creating opportunities for employment and economic development
    • Supporting R&D projects
  • In April 2022, the government launched the country’s only pure green hydrogen pilot plant with an installed capacity of 10kg per day at its Jorhat pump station in Assam.
  • In January this year, the government commissioned India’s first green hydrogen blending project in the piped natural gas network.


SCO Nations – enhance collaborations in Science & Technology 

  • The nations of theShanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) have been urged by India to work together for improved cooperation in the areas of science, technology, and innovation.

Key highlights:

  • Science and Technology Minister of India addressed theSCO meeting through virtual mode and urged the member countries to jointly address the emerging challenges of the Eurasian region.

Why need for collaboration in field of Science and Technology?

  • India mentioned that SCO countries are exposed to identical challenges such as ensuring food, challenges emerging due to climate change, biodiversity loss, water scarcity, affordable healthcare, environmental issues and energy access for its people.
    • In order to resolve these challenges, it is imperative for us to join hands to innovate affordable scientific solutions.

Role of Science and Technology

  • Global economic recovery:The COVID-19 pandemic has changed the global scenario of the economy. Science and technology has played a greater role in global economic recovery.
    • The SCO scientific community needs to cooperate in the field of technology-based solutions for social and economic challenges.
  • Healthcare:The Government of India has focused on innovative interventions for affordable healthcare and by 2047, India aims to be one of the world’s top markets in medical devices.
  • Research & Innovation:India is moving along the mantra -‘Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan, Jai Vigyan, and Jai Anusandhan,’ which essentially believes in coordination of various sectors to make India a global centre of research and innovation.
  • According to NSF database:India has now climbed to 3rd position in research and development.
    • During the last 8 years, the number of registered start-ups has grown from a mere 400 to an astounding 97,000. India has also reached 3rd position in terms of number of PhDs.
  • National Hydrogen Energy Mission: India is progressing ahead to meet its commitment at COP 26 of achieving net zero emissions by 2070 and fulfilling 50 per cent of energy requirements by utilising renewable energy by 2030.

Flagship Initiatives:

  • In the recent past, the Government of India has launched several flagship initiatives to build scientific leadership in the emerging areas of science. Such as –
    • National Mission on Cyber Physical Systems
    • Quantum Computing
    • National Mission on Supercomputing
    • Deep Ocean Mission


World Development Report : Wave of Migration

  • The latest World Development Report has published by the World Bank, says the world is in such a crisis that a new wave of migration among countries is needed for human survival.

 Key highlights of the report:

  • Distress migration: The first migration which happened some 70,000 years ago could be called a distress migration, based on geological and paleo climate evidence.
  • Human beings moved out from Africa, seeking food, water and a suitable climate to prosper.
  • Back then, the planet was an open geographical mass without political boundaries.

 Current Status:

  • The184 million migrants in the world are 2.3 percent of the population, with 80% of them being economic migrants.
  • Since 2014, nearly 50,000 people have died while attempting to migrate, showing the desperation of people to migrate for survival.
  • This is due to the demographic change in the world, where there is a scarcity of people who can work and have the skills to do so.
    • For Example:Italy will have its population cut in half by the end of the century. Globally, the number of people over age 65 is already larger than the number of children under age 5.

Estimation by World Bank:

  • Demographic changes have caused a global competition for workers and talent, with rich countries having to open up again, middle-income countries having to compete with those brought in from outside, and poor and developing countries having to undertake massive skill-development exercises to grab the opportunity.
  • This has caused the world to seek out the suitable among its own species in a desperate way.