31st May Current Affairs
May 31, 2022
2nd June Current Affairs
June 2, 2022
Show all

1st June Current Affairs

Har Ghar Tiranga

(GS-II: Government Policies and associated issues)

In News:

Revised Flag Code of India has come into effect. The Union government in December 2021 amended the flag code.

According to this:

The Indian national flag or Tricolour can now be made of polyester and with the help of machines.


Earlier only hand-woven and hand-spun flags made of cotton, silk, wool or Khadi were allowed.

Har Ghar Tiranga (tricolour at every door) programme:

It proposes to cover government buildings, private offices and residences.

Rules governing the usage of National Flag:

The  hoisting, use and display of the flag is governed by the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971, and the Flag Code of India, 2002.

Previous amendments to the Flag Code:

The code has been amended earlier too. The original flag code of India 1947 was amended in 2002 after a Supreme Court judgment.

This expanded the definition of places where the flag could be displayed or hoisted. However, part one of the code that deals with the description of the flag had remained untouched.

Evolution of National flag:

Present flag is based on the Swaraj flag, a flag of the Indian National Congress designed by Pingali Venkayya.

After undergoing several changes, the Tricolour was adopted as our national flag at a Congress Committee meeting in Karachi in 1931.

Constitutional & Statutory Provisions regarding National Flag of India:

Art 51A(a) – To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem.

Statutes Governing Use of Flag:

Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950.

Prevention of Insults to National Honor Act, 1971.

Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan narrated significance of National flag as:

The “Ashoka Chakra” is the wheel of the law of dharma. Chakra intend to show that there is LIFE IN MOVEMENT and death in stagnation.

The saffron color denotes renunciation of disinterestedness.

The white in the center is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct.

The green shows our relation to the soil, our relation to the plant life here, on which all other life depends.

What is liquid nano urea?

(GS-III: Fertilizer and subsidy related issues)

In News:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently inaugurated the country’s first liquid nano urea plant at Kalol, Gujarat.


It will be produced by Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative (IFFCO) Limited.

What is liquid nano urea?

Urea is a chemical nitrogen fertilizer, white in colour, which artificially provides nitrogen, a major nutrient required by plants.

Liquid nano urea is essentially urea in the form of a nanoparticle.

Liquid nano urea vs imported/urea – Which is better?

Cost: liquid nano urea is cheaper (Rs 240 for half litre without subsidy; International market price of a bag of urea is between Rs 3,500 and Rs 4,000. A bottle of the nano urea can effectively replace at least one bag of urea.

Benefits for the government: Reduces fertilizer subsidy bill of the government. India is dependent on imports of the widely used fertilizer.

The efficiency of liquid nano urea can be as high as 85-90 per cent (Conventional urea has an efficiency of about 25 per cent).

Liquid nano urea has a shelf life of a year, and farmers need not be worried about “caking” when it comes in contact with moisture.

Other benefits of liquid nano urea:

  • Fertilizers in nano form provide a targeted supply of nutrients to crops, as they are absorbed by the stomata, pores found on the epidermis of leaves.
  • Reduces the unbalanced and indiscriminate use of conventional urea.
  • Increases crop productivity.
  • Reduces soil, water, and air pollution.

GST compensation

(GS-II: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)

In News:

The Centre has released the entire amount of Goods and Services Tax (GST) compensation payable to States up to May 31, 2022 by releasing an amount of ₹86,912 crore.


This is being done to assist the States in managing their resources and ensuring that their programmes, especially the expenditure on capital, is carried out successfully during the financial year.

What is the GST compensation?

The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016, was the law which created the mechanism for levying a common nationwide Goods and Services Tax (GST).

While States would receive the SGST (State GST) component of the GST, and a share of the IGST (integrated GST), it was agreed that revenue shortfalls arising from the transition to the new indirect taxes regime would be made good from a pooled GST Compensation Fund.

How is the GST Compensation Fund funded?

This corpus is funded through a compensation cess that is levied on so-called ‘demerit’ goods.

The items are pan masala, cigarettes and tobacco products, aerated water, caffeinated beverages, coal and certain passenger motor vehicles.

Computation of the shortfall:

The computation of the shortfall is done annually by projecting a revenue assumption based on 14% compounded growth from the base year’s (2015-2016) revenue and calculating the difference between that figure and the actual GST collections in that year.

Can the deadline be extended? If so, how?

The deadline for GST compensation was set in the original legislation and so in order to extend it, the GST Council must first recommend it and the Union government must then move an amendment to the GST law allowing for a new date.

PM-Kisan scheme

(GS-III: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions)

In News:

11th installment of PM Kisan Samman Nidhi, worth over Rs. 20,000 crores, was recently transferred to more than 10 crore farmers.

About PM-Kisan scheme:

It is a central sector scheme with 100 per cent funding from the Government of India. The scheme was launched in December 2018.

Under the scheme, income support of ₹6,000 per year is provided to small and marginal farmers.

The state governments and Union Territory administration identify the farmers who are eligible for the scheme and share the list with the Centre.


The Scheme initially provided income support to all Small and Marginal Farmers’ families across the country, holding cultivable land upto 2 hectares. Its ambit was later expanded w.e.f. 01.06.2019 to cover all farmer families in the country irrespective of the size of their land holdings.


Affluent farmers have been excluded from the scheme such as Income Tax payers in last assessment year, professionals like Doctors, Engineers, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants etc and pensioners pensioners drawing at least Rs.10,000/- per month (excluding MTS/Class IV/Group D employees).

Similar programmes by states:

Bhavantar Bhugtan Yojana- MP.

The Rythu Bandhu scheme- Telangana.

Krushak Assistance for Livelihood and Income augmentation (KALIA)- Odisha.