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November 30, 2020
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December 2, 2020
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1st December Current Affairs

One Nation, One Election

In News:

PM recently again pitched for ‘One Nation, One Election’, saying it is the need of the country as elections taking place every few months hamper development works.

Details:

This was suggested at the recently held 80th All India Presiding Officers Conference.

He also suggested that only one voter list should be used for Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha and other elections.

What is ‘One Nation, One Election’?

It refers to holding elections to Lok Sabha, State Legislative Assemblies, Panchayats and Urban local bodies simultaneously, once in five year.

But, what are the challenges posed by frequent elections?

Policy paralysis that results from the imposition of the Model Code of Conduct during election time.

Impact on delivery of essential services.

Burden on crucial manpower that is deployed during election time.

Puts pressure on political parties, especially smaller ones, as elections are becoming increasingly expensive.

Benefits of Simultaneous Elections:

Governance and consistency: The ruling parties will be able to focus on legislation and governance rather than having to be in campaign mode forever.

Reduced Expenditure of Money and Administration.

Continuity in policies and programmes.

Efficiency of Governance: Populist measures by governments will reduce.

The impact of black money on the voters will be reduced as all elections are held at a time.

Impact on Regional parties:

There is always a tendency for voters to vote the same party in power in the state and at the Centre in case the Lok Sabha polls and the state elections are held together.

For simultaneous elections to be implemented, Changes to be made in Constitution and Legislations:

The Representation of People Act, 1951 Act would have to be amended to build in provisions for stability of tenure for both parliament and assemblies.

HC has taken over executive functions: A.P

In News:

Andhra Pradesh government recently told the Supreme Court that Andhra Pradesh High Court has “virtually taken over the executive functions of the State”.

Instances in support of this allegation:

A November 2 direction of the High Court to the State to submit before it the construction plans for a guest house proposed in Vishakapatnam.

What’s the issue now?

State government says that the High Court had “seriously violated the doctrine of Separation of Powers”.

Besides, in doing so, the High Court has completely ignored the warning that the Supreme Court has, time and again, sounded advising the courts to respect the other co-equal organs of the State and to refrain from assuming such powers to itself.

What has the Supreme Court said on the issue?

A 2008 judgment of the Supreme Court said “in the name of judicial activism, judges cannot cross their limits and try to take over functions which belong to another organ of the State”.

Concerns associated with Judicial Activism:

The independence of the judiciary is jeopardised when courts become embroiled in the passions of the day (Observation made by the U.S. Supreme Court).

What is Judicial Activism?

It refers to the court’s decision, based on the judges personal wisdom that do not go rigidly within the text of the statutory passed by the legislature and the use of judicial power broadly to provide remedies to the wide range of social wrongs for ensuring proper justice.

The Doctrine of separation of Power:

The Constitution, under various provisions, has clearly drawn the line between Legislature and the Judiciary to maintain their independence in their respective functioning.

Article 121 and 211 forbid the legislature from discussing the conduct of any judge in the discharge of his duties.

Articles 122 and 212 prevent the courts from sitting in judgment over the internal proceedings of the legislature.

Article 105(2) and 194(2) protect the legislators from the interference of the Courts with regards to his/her freedom of speech and freedom to vote.

Conclusion:

In Ram Jawaya v. The State of Punjab (1955), the court observed: “Our Constitution does not contemplate assumption, by one organ or part of the state, of functions that essentially belong to another.”

What Is The Beautiful ‘Blue Tide’ Spotted Along Mumbai Coastline?

In News:

The tide producing a fluorescent blue hue, popularly known as bioluminescence, recently made an appearance at Mumbai’s Juhu Beach and Devgad Beach in Sindhudurg, along Maharashtra’s coastline.

Background:

Bioluminescence has been an annual occurrence along the west coast since 2016, especially during the months of November and December.

Why is it caused?

The spectacle occurs when phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants), commonly known as dinoflagellates, produce light through chemical reactions in proteins. Waves disturb these unicellular microorganisms and makes them release blue light.

Why it is dangerous?

The spectacle may be beautiful, but it may also be a signal of danger. Many of the species in this group are toxic. If dinoflagellates reproduce rapidly, they may cause so-called ‘red tides’.

Global Renewable Energy Investment Meeting and Expo

In News:

3rd Global Renewable Energy Investment Meeting and Expo (RE-Invest 2020) was inaugurated recently.

Details:

The summit is organised by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

The theme for 2020 is ‘Innovations for Sustainable Energy Transition’.

How is India performing on this front?

India’s renewable power capacity is the 4th largest in the world and is growing at the fastest speed among all major countries.

The renewable energy capacity in India is currently 136 Giga Watts, which is about 36% of our total capacity.

India’s annual renewable energy capacity addition has been exceeding that of coal based thermal power since 2017.

In the last 6 years, India has increased installed renewable energy capacity by two and half times.

Overall, India has shown to the world that investing in renewable energy early on even when it was not affordable has helped in achieving the scale, which is bringing costs down. Sound environmental policies can also be sound economics.