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19th June Current Affairs

Govt amends Cable TV network rules

In News:

The Information and Broadcasting Ministry has amended the Cable Television Network Rules, 1994 regulating Cable TV networks, providing for a “statutory” mechanism for complaints raised by citizens regarding any content broadcast.

Overview of Cable Television Networks (Amendment) Rules, 2021:

It provides for a three-level grievance redressal mechanism — self-regulation by broadcasters, self-regulation by the self-regulating bodies of the broadcasters, and oversight by an Inter-Departmental Committee at the level of the Union government.

Procedure for grievance redressal:

A viewer can file a complaint directly to the broadcaster, who will have to respond within 15 days.

If the complainant is not satisfied with the response, the complaint can be escalated to the self-regulating bodies set up by TV channels, which should deal with the case in 60 days.

If the complainant is not satisfied with the decision of the self-regulating body, he may, within 15 days of such decision, prefer an appeal to the Central Government for its consideration under the Oversight Mechanism.

Such appeals will be dealt with by the Inter-Departmental Committee set up under the Oversight Mechanism.

Composition of the committee:

The committee will be headed by the Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, and have members from various ministries.

Powers of the committee:

Recommend the Centre to advise, issue a warning, censure, admonish or reprimand a broadcaster, or seek an apology.

Ask the broadcaster to include a warning card or a disclaimer, or to delete or modify content, or take the channel or a programme off-air for a specified time period, where it is satisfied that such action is warranted.

Present Grievance redressal mechanism:

At present, there is an institutional mechanism by way of an Inter-Ministerial Committee to address the grievances of citizens relating to the violation of the Programme/Advertising Codes under the Rules, but it does not have statutory backing.

Significance of the new rules:

It paves the way “for a strong institutional system for redressing grievances.

It places accountability and responsibility on the broadcasters and their self-regulating bodies.

About the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act, 1995:

The law prescribes imprisonment up to two years or fine up to ₹1,000 or both for the first offence, and imprisonment up to five years and with fine up to ₹5,000 if any media governed under the CTN Act violates the provisions and the “Programme Code”.

The code, which contains an elaborate list of don’ts for cable TV channels, states that no programme should be aired that contains anything obscene, defamatory, false, and suggests innuendos and half-truths.

What is hallmarking of gold, and for whom is it now mandatory?

In News:

The government has announced the phased implementation of mandatory hallmarking of gold jewellery with effect from June 16.


In the first phase, gold hallmarking will be available in only in 256 districts and jewellers having annual turnover above Rs 40 lakh will come under its purview.

What is hallmarking of gold?

Hallmarking is the “accurate determination and official recording of the proportionate content of precious metal in precious metal articles.”

So, it is like a “guarantee of purity or fineness” of precious metal articles.

The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) operates gold and silver hallmarking scheme in India.

Metals covered under the purview of hallmarking:

Gold jewellery and gold artefacts.

Silver jewellery and silver artefacts.


Export and re-import of jewellery as per Trade Policy of Government of India — Jewellery for international exhibitions, jewellery for government-approved B2B domestic exhibitions.

Watches, fountain pens and special types of jewellery such as Kundan, Polki and Jadau.

What was the need of making hallmarking mandatory?

India is the biggest consumer of gold. However, the level of hallmarked jewellery is very low in the country- only 30% of Indian gold jewellery is hallmarked. Main reason behind this is non-availability of sufficient assaying and hallmarking centres (A&HC).

The mandatory hallmarking will protect the public against lower caratage and ensure consumers do not get cheated while buying gold ornaments.

It will also help to get the purity as marked on the ornaments.

It will bring in transparency and assure the consumers of quality.


In News:

Scientists have shown that the geometry of space-time can cause neutrinos to oscillate.

What are neutrinos?

Detected for the first time in 1959, neutrinos are the second most abundant particles in the world, after photons, or the light particle.

Neutrinos are mysterious particles, produced copiously in nuclear reactions in the Sun, stars, and elsewhere.

They also “oscillate”– meaning that different types of neutrinos change into one another.

Probing of oscillations of neutrinos and their relations with mass are crucial in studying the origin of the universe.


Neutrinos are created by various radioactive decays; during a supernova, by cosmic rays striking atoms etc.

Features of neutrinos:

Neutrinos interact very weakly with everything else – trillions of them pass through every human being every second without anyone noticing.

A neutrino’s spin always points in the opposite direction of its motion.

It is now generally believed that the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations require neutrinos to have tiny masses.