First Information Report (FIR)
(GS-II: Government Policies & Interventions; Issues Arising Out of Design & Implementation of Policies)
An First Information Report (FIR) is a very important document as it sets the process of criminal justice in motion. It is only after the FIR is registered in the police station that the police take up investigation of the case.
What is a FIR?
First Information Report (FIR) is a written document prepared by the police when they receive information about the commission of a cognizable offence.
It is a report of information that reaches the police first in point of time and that is why it is called the First Information Report.
It is generally a complaint lodged with the police by the victim of a cognizable offence or by someone on his/her behalf. Anyone can report the commission of a cognizable offence either orally or in writing.
The term FIR is not defined in the Indian Penal Code (IPC), Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC), 1973, or in any other law.
However, in police regulations or rules, information recorded under Section 154 of CrPC is known as First Information Report (FIR).
There are three important elements of an FIR:
The information must relate to the commission of a cognizable offence,
It should be given in writing or orally to the head of the police station,
It must be written down and signed by the informant, and its key points should be recorded in a daily diary.
What happens after an FIR is filed?
The police will investigate the case and will collect evidence in the form of statements of witnesses or other scientific materials.
They can arrest the alleged persons as per law.
If there is sufficient evidence to corroborate the allegations of the complainant, then a charge sheet will be filed. Or else, a Final Report mentioning that no evidence was found will be filed in court.
If it is found that no offence has been committed, a cancellation report will be filed.
If no trace of the accused persons is found, an ‘untraced’ report will be filed.
However, if the court does not agree with the investigation report, it can order further investigation.
What if the police refuse to register an FIR?
Under Section 154(3) CrPC, if any person is aggrieved by the refusal on the part of the officer in charge of a police station to register an FIR, she can send the complaint to the Superintendent of Police/DCP concerned.
Who, if satisfied that such information discloses the commission of a cognizable offence, will either investigate the case, or direct an investigation by a subordinate police officer.
If no FIR is registered, the aggrieved persons can file a complaint under Section 156(3) CrPC before a concerned court which, if satisfied that a cognizable offence is made out from the complaint, will direct the police to register an FIR and conduct an investigation.
What is a Zero FIR?
When a police station receives a complaint regarding an alleged offence that has been committed in the jurisdiction of another police station, it registers an FIR, and then transfers it to the concerned police station for further investigation.
This is called a Zero FIR.
No regular FIR number is given. After receiving the Zero FIR, the concerned police station registers a fresh FIR and starts the investigation.
What is Cognizable Offence & Non-cognizable Offence?
Cognizable Offence: A cognizable offence is one in which the police may arrest a person without warrant.
They are authorised to start investigation into a cognizable case on their own and do not require any orders from the court to do so.
Non-cognizable Offence: A non-cognizable offence is an offence in which a police officer has no authority to arrest without warrant.
The police cannot investigate such an offence without the court’s permission.
In case of non-cognizable offences, an FIR under Section 155 CrPC is registered.
The complainant will be asked to approach a court for an order. The court may then direct the police to conduct an investigation on the complaint.
What is the difference between a complaint and an FIR?
The CrPC defines a “complaint” as “any allegation made orally or in writing to a Magistrate, with a view to his taking action under this Code, that some person, whether known or unknown, has committed an offence, but does not include a police report.”
However, an FIR is the document that has been prepared by the police after verifying the facts of the complaint. The FIR may contain details of the crime and the alleged criminal.
If, on the basis of a complaint, it appears that a cognizable offence has been committed, then an FIR under Section 154 CrPC will be registered, and police will open an investigation. If no offence is found, the police will close the inquiry.
Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan
(GS-II: Government Policies & Interventions; Education Issues Arising Out of Design & Implementation of Policies; Centrally Sponsored Schemes; Transparency & Accountability; Management of Social Sector/Services)
The Government has approved the scheme of Rashtriya Uchchatar Shiksha Abhiyan (RUSA) for continuation till 31st March.2026 or till further review, whichever is earlier.
The proposal entails an expenditure of Rs. 12929.16 crore out of which Central Share is Rs. 8120.97 crores and the State Share is of Rs. 4808.19 crores. It has been envisaged to support around 1600 projects under the new phase of the scheme.
What is RUSA?
It is the centrally sponsored scheme launched in October 2013 that aims at providing strategic funding to higher education institutions throughout the country.
The central funding (in the ratio of 60:40 for general category States, 90:10 for special category states and 100% for union territories) is norm based and outcome dependent.
The funding flows from the Ministry of Education through the state governments/union territories to the State Higher Education Councils before reaching the identified institutions.
The funding to states would be made on the basis of critical appraisal of State Higher Education Plans, which would describe each state’s strategy to address issues of equity, access and excellence in higher education.
What is envisaged in the News Phase?
New phase of RUSA targets to reach out the unserved, underserved areas, remote/ rural areas, difficult geographies, LWE (Left-Wing Extremism) areas, NER (North Eastern Region), Aspirational Districts, tier-2 cities, areas with low GER (Gross enrolment ratio) etc., and to benefit the most disadvantaged areas and SEDGs (Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Groups).
The new phase of the scheme has been designed to implement some of the recommendations and aims of the New Education Policy, which suggests some key changes to the current higher education system to revamp and re-energize it and thereby deliver quality higher education, with equity and inclusion.
State Governments will be supported for Gender inclusion, Equity Initiatives, ICT, Enhancing employability through vocationalisation & skill upgradation.
States will also be supported for creation of new Model Degree Colleges.
State Universities will be supported for Multi-Disciplinary Education and Research.
Grants will be provided for strengthening both accredited and non-accredited Universities and Colleges for undertaking various activities including teaching-learning in Indian languages.
What are the Objectives?
Improve the overall quality of state institutions by conforming to the prescribed norms and standards.
Adoption of accreditation (certification of competency) as a mandatory quality assurance framework.
Promoting autonomy in state universities and improving governance in institutions.
Ensure reforms in the affiliation, academic and examination system.
Ensure adequate availability of quality faculty in all higher educational institutions and ensure capacity building at all levels of employment.
Create an enabling atmosphere for research in the higher education system.
Correct regional imbalances in access to higher education by setting up institutions in unserved and underserved areas.
Improve equity in higher education by providing adequate opportunities to the disadvantaged.
Army Tag for New Gecko
(GS-III: Conservation Related Issues)
Recently, a team of herpetologists have recorded a new species of bent-toed gecko from a wooded part of the Umroi Military Station in Meghalaya.
Its scientific name is Crytodactylus exercitus and its English name is Indian Army’s bent-toed gecko.
Further, another new bent-toed gecko, the Cyrtodactylus siahaensis named after Mizoram’s Siaha district where it was found.
A herpetologist is someone who specializes in the study of reptiles and amphibians.
What are Geckos?
Geckos are reptiles and are found on all the continents except Antarctica.
These colorful lizards have adapted to habitats from rainforests, to deserts, to cold mountain slopes.
Over a long period of time, geckos have developed special physical features to help them survive and avoid predators.
Gecko tails serve many purposes. They help balance their weight as they climb branches, they act as fuel tanks to store fat, and as camouflage to help them disappear into their environment.
Geckos are also able to shed their tails if a predator grabs them.
Most geckos are nocturnal, which means they are active at night, but day geckos are active during the day and nibble on insects, fruits, and flower nectar.
Most geckos make noises such as chirping, barking, and clicking when they are defending their territory or attracting a mate.
There are many species of geckos. Depending on the species, their endangered status can range from least concern to critically endangered.