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19th October Current Affairs
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18th October Current Affairs

Role of Interpol

(GS-II: Important international institutions, agencies and fora-their structure, mandate etc)

In News:

Interpol Secretary said that the international criminal police organisation was not playing any role in curbing state-sponsored terrorism and that it focussed primarily on ordinary law crimes.

The mandate of Interpol:

Interpol is like the UN. But it is not meant for dispute resolution. It is designed to assist the police forces of member nations. Interpol is neither an investigative agency like the CBI nor a front-line police force. It is mandated to share information and provide back-end technical assistance to law enforcement agencies

Interpol deals with cases of Child abusers, Rapists, Murderers, Traffickers, Drug dealers, and Cybercriminals

Providing information: about crime and criminals in the digital space

Cyberspace: Preventing abuse of cyberspace

Dark web: Stalling hackers on the dark web

New tools being used by Interpol:

Early warning system: Interpol had been developing a global early warning system for the collection and sharing of terrorism-related inputs.

Information of terrorists: Interpol had one of the biggest repositories of information related to foreign terrorist hideouts and tools.

It has a huge repository of fingerprints, DNA profiles, Facial recognition kits, Cyber-enabled financial crimes, and Property crimes, among others.

Interpol’s global stop-payment mechanism(an anti-money laundering rapid response protocol): It has helped the member countries recover more than $60 million(past 10 months).

Global Crime Trend Report(by Interpol): It highlighted the massive increase in online child sexual exploitation and abuse, which is only set to increase.

Interpol’s International Child Sexual Exploitation database: It helped investigators around the world identify an average of seven child abuse victims every day.

The success of its secure i-24 for 24/7 information sharing

Red Notice: It is not an international arrest warrant and Interpol could not force any member country to arrest a subject of the notice.

Interpol’s Singapore unit: It had been providing support to the member countries to develop a legal framework and come up with tools for tracking and seizing cryptocurrencies.

It was also collaborating with the Financial Action Task Force (FATF).

Way forward:

Beyond databases and tools: Interpol is required now to articulate an expansion beyond its databases and tools.

Real-time dissemination of information: The success of its secure i-24 for 24/7 information sharing aside, the importance of real-time dissemination of information should gain primacy.

Equitable significance: should be accorded to the legitimate interests of growing economies pursuing democratic charters.

Demographic dividend: A large and young technology-oriented workforce in startups can be utilized for upgrading the security architecture.

Interpol and law enforcement agencies of member nations: They must endeavour to build, maintain and operate a people-centric ecosystem to meet the evolving challenges.

Why SC will examine the question of the age of marriage of a Muslim woman

In News:

Recently Supreme Court has agreed to examine an order of the Punjab and Haryana High Court that allowed a minor Muslim girl to marry a person of her choice violating the provisions of The Prevention of Child Marriages Act, 2006.

Legal age of marriage in India:

The legal age of marriage is 18 and 21 for a woman and a man respectively.

However, this is not uniform across communities.

As per law, those below the age of 18 cannot be deemed to have given

How is the age of marriage determined in India?

Personal laws that govern marriage and other practices for communities prescribe certain criteria for marriage, including age.

For example, Section 5(iii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, sets a minimum age of 18 for the bride and 21 for the groom. This is the same for Christians under the Indian Christian Marriage Act, 1872 and the Special Marriage Act.

For Muslims, the criterion is attaining puberty, which is assumed when the bride or groom turns

Law governing Child marriage:

Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 and the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012.

Prohibition of Child Marriage Act does not have any provision that says the law would override any other laws on the issue.

So, there is a discrepancy between the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act and the Muslim personal law on the minimum age of marriage, and there is no clarity on what law supersedes the other.

Learning Losses

In News:

World Bank held a discussion on the “Learning Losses”

Learning losses in terms of education due to COVID:

World Bank-UNESCO-UNICEF report: Learning losses from COVID-19 could cost this generation of students close to $17 trillion in lifetime earnings.

Learning losses were greater for students of lower socioeconomic status in countries like Ghana, Mexico, and Pakistan.

Larger losses among girls, as they are quickly losing the protection that schools and learning offer to their well-being and life chances.

Steps were taken by India to address “learning losses” due to COVID:

India conducted:

National Achievement Survey (NAS) 2021, covering 3.4 million students of grades III, V, VII and X, to evaluate learning competencies. ( It showed a 9% decline in performance).

National Foundation Learning Study for grade III students.

Alternative Academic Calender ( covering syllabus based on learning outcomes)

DIKSHA ( one of the 12 Digital Global Goods in India) for students and teachers

NISHTHA (for teacher’s training)

Vidyanjali 2.0 ( connecting volunteers with schools)