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14th April Current Affairs

Birsa Munda

(GS-I: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country)

In News:

Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan recently released a book on the life of tribal freedom fighter Birsa Munda.


The book titled ‘Birsa Munda – Janjatiya Nayak’ is written by Prof Alok Chakrawal, Vice-Chancellor of Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur.

The book is a comprehensive attempt to bring to the fore the struggle of Bhagwan Birsa Munda and the contribution of forest dwellers in the freedom movement.

Who was he?

Bisra Munda was a folk hero and a tribal freedom fighter hailing from the Munda tribe. He was a spearhead behind the Millenarian movement that arose in the Bihar and Jharkhand belt in the 19th century under British colonisation. He is also known as ‘Dharti Abba’ or the Earth Father.

Born on 15th November 1875.


Bisra wanted to reform the tribal society and so, he urged them to let go of beliefs in witchcraft and instead, stressed on the importance of prayer, staying away from alcohol, having faith in God and observing a code of conduct. Based on these, he started the faith of ‘Birsait’.


Bisra started a movement called ‘Ulgulan’, or ‘The Great Tumult’. His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribals led to a big hit against the British government in the form of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act being passed in 1908. The act restricted the passing on of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.

Munda Rebellion:

It is one of the most important tribal movements.

It was led by Birsa Munda in the south of Ranchi in 1899-1900.

The movement identified following forces as the cause of the misery the Mundas were suffering:

The land policies of the British were destroying their traditional land system.

Hindu landlords and moneylenders were taking over their land.

Missionaries were criticising their traditional culture.

Significance of Munda Rebellion:

It forced the colonial government to introduce laws so that the land of the tribals could not be easily taken over by dikus (Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908).

It showed that the tribal people had the capacity to protest against injustice and express their anger against colonial rule.

InTranSE -II Program

(GS-III: Infrastructure – Energy)

In News:

The government has launched Indigenous Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Solutions for Indian Traffic Scenario under Intelligent Transportation System Endeavor for Indian Cities Phase-II Program.


InTranSE -II is an initiative of the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).

Recently launched solutions include:

An indigenous Onboard Driver Assistance and Warning System – ODAWS: It incorporates vehicle-borne sensors for monitoring driver propensity and vehicle surroundings to deliver acoustic and visual alerts for driver assistance.

Bus Signal Priority System: It is an operational strategy that modifies normal traffic signal operations to better accommodate in-service public buses at signal-controlled intersections.

Common SMart iot Connectiv (CoSMiC) software: CoSMiC provides a Dashboard page showing IoT units, products, applications, and its live data in a Geographical Information System (GIS) map.

What is InTranSe?

Intelligent Transportation System Endeavour (InTranSe) for Indian IndianCities” is a National level Collaborative Research and Development Program.

Funded by the Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY), Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India.

Aim: InTranSe aims at Development, Demonstration, Deployment, Technology Transfer and Commercialization of products and technologies relevant to Intelligent Transportation System (ITS).

Overall objective of the program is to provide the country with the capability to become a significant player in the area of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS).

‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ program

(GS-II: Schemes)

In News:

The Union Government has launched the ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’ program in additional 126 cities across 14 States/ UTs.

About the ‘SVANidhi se Samriddhi’:

It is an additional program of

Launched under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Implementing Partner: Quality Council of India (QCI).

During Phase 1 of the program, it covered 125 cities, covering approximately 35 Lakh Street vendors and their families.

Aim: To provide social security benefits to street vendors for their holistic development and socio-economic upliftment.

Under the program, socio-economic profiling of PM SVANidhi beneficiaries and their families is conducted to assess their eligibility for Eight Government of India’s welfare schemes and facilitate sanctions of eligible schemes.

These Eight schemes include:

1) Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana.

2) PM Suraksha Bima Yojana.

3) Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.

4) Building and other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act (BOCW).

5) Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maandhan Yojana.

6) National Food Security Act (NFSA)-portability benefit – One Nation One Ration Card (ONORC).

7) Janani Suraksha Yojana and 8) Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana.

PM SVANidhi Scheme:

It is a special micro-credit facility plan to provide affordable loan of up to ₹10,000 to more than 50 lakh street vendors, who had their businesses operational on or before 24 March 2020.

Small Industries Development Bank of India is the technical partner for implementation of this scheme.

It will manage the credit guarantee to the lending institutions through Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises.

Loans under the scheme:

Under the scheme, vendors can avail working capital loan of up to ₹10,000, which is repayable in monthly installments within one year.

On timely/early repayment of the loan, an interest subsidy of 7% per annum will be credited to the bank accounts of beneficiaries through Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) on six-months basis.

There will be no penalty on early repayment of loan.


The scheme is applicable to vendors, hawkers, thelewalas, rehriwalas, theliphadwalas in different areas/contexts who supply goods and services. Street vendors belonging to the surrounding peri-urban/rural areas are also included.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

(GS-I: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country)

In News:

On April 13, 1919, British forces opened fire on unarmed Indians at Jallianwala Bagh killing hundreds of people.

13th April, 2022 marks the 103 years of the incident.

About the incident:

It was Baisakhi that day, Local residents in Amritsar decided to hold a meeting that day to discuss and protest against the confinement of Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, two leaders fighting for Independence, and implementation of the Rowlatt Act, which armed the British government with powers to detain any person without trial.

The crowd had a mix of men, women and children. They all gathered in a park called the Jallianwala Bagh, walled on all sides but for a few small gates, against the orders of the British. While the meeting was on, Brigadier-General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer, who had crept up to the scene wanting to teach the public assembled a lesson, ordered 90 soldiers he had brought with him to the venue to open fire on the crowd. Many tried in vain to scale the walls to escape. Many jumped into the well located inside the park.


Considered ‘The Butcher of Amritsar’in the aftermath of the massacre, General Dyer was removed from command and exiled to Britain.

Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi, as a sign of condemnation, renounced their British Knighthood and Kaiser-i-Hind medal respectively.

In 1922, the infamous Rowlett Act was repealed by the British.