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14 August Current Affairs

Bangladesh constructs war memorial for Indian Soldiers killed in 1971

In News:

The Bangladesh Government is to construct war memorial for Indian soldiers killed in 1971 war. The memorial is to be constructed in Ashuganj, Brahmanbaria bordering Tripura. This is mainly due to its significance in the Liberation War of 1971.

Details:

Bangladesh has a war memorial on the outskirts of Dhaka for all martyrs. However, the proposed memorial is for the Indian soldiers alone. Bangladesh had earlier felicitated Indian soldiers posthumously and had also honoured the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for their role in the Liberation war.

Bangladesh Liberation War:

The Bangladesh Liberation war was an armed conflict that resulted in the independence of Bangladesh from Pakistan. The Bangladesh War began after West Pakistan launched Operation Searchlight against the people of East Pakistan in 1971.

Operation Searchlight:

The Operation Searchlight was a planned military operation carried out by Pakistan Army in East Pakistan. The operation was launched to control the Bengali independence movement. The Operation also began the 1971 Bangladesh Genocide.

1971 Bangladesh Genocide:

The Genocide in Bangladesh began with Operation Searchlight. The Genocide killed between 300,00 and 3 million people and raped 200,000 to 400,000 women. It was carried out by the Pakistani military and the Islamist militia from Jamaat-e-Islami.

Awami League:

In 1970 General Elections, the Awami League party gained 167 out of 169 seats in the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly. West Pakistan launched military operations fearing that the success of the party would allow Bengalis to draft constitution based on liberalism.

The Awami League was established as Bengali alternative for the Muslim domination in East Pakistan.

India in the war:

India entered the war after Pakistan launched “Operation Chengiz Khan” striking 11 Indian airfields. The Operation also included artillery strikes on Indian positions in Kashmir. The airfields include Agra, Ambala, Amritsar, Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Bhuj, Pathankot, Srinagar, Awantipur, Uttarlai, etc. The war lasted between India and Pakistan for 13 days.

Make In India In Defence

In News:

The Department of Military Affairs (DMA), Ministry of Defence (MoD) has prepared a list of 101 items for which there would be an embargo on the import beyond the timeline indicated against them.

About:

  • The list of 101 embargoed items comprises of some high technology weapon systems like artillery guns, assault rifles, corvettes, sonar systems, transport aircrafts, LCHs, radars and many other items to fulfil the needs of the defence Services.
  • The list also includes wheeled Armoured Fighting Vehicles (AFVs) with indicative import embargo date of December 2021, of which the Army is expected to contract almost 200 at an approximate cost of over ₹5,000 crore.
  • The embargo on imports is planned to be progressively implemented between 2020 to 2024.

Important Info:

  • The Government also intends to reach a turnover of $25 billion through indigenously manufactured defence products and also expects to export products worth $5 billion.
  • Government has also decided that in any government contract over ₹200 crore, no foreign company can participate in the tendering process. This year ₹52,000 crore items are to be bought only from Indian companies.
  • MoD has also bifurcated the capital procurement budget for 2020-21 between domestic and foreign capital procurement routes.

Food Vision 2050 Prize

In News:

US-based Rockefeller Foundation has selected Anand Mahindra-backed Naandi Foundation, the Hyderabad based non-profit as one of the top 10 Visionaries in the world for the Food Vision 2050 Prize.

About:

  • The award, which was announced in New York, carries a cash prize of $200,000.
  • The Rockefeller Foundation award recognised the application of the Arakunomics model in the regions of Araku, Wardha and New Delhi by Naandi Foundation.
  • This model leads to the Food Vision 2050 that follows an ‘ABCDEFGH’ framework — Agriculture, Biology, Compost, Decentralised decision-making, Entrepreneurs, Families, Global Markets, and ‘Headstands’, or turning current approaches on their head.

Arakunomics?

  • Naandi’s vision titled “Arakunomics” was based on work with tribal farmers in Araku for nearly 20 years.
  • Arakunomics is a new integrated economic model that ensures Profits for farmers, Quality for consumers through Regenerative Agriculture (PQR).
  • The economic model is a tribute to the tribal farmers of Araku region for the world-class coffee produced and launched in Paris in 2017, as well as for the high carbon landscape transformation they did in over 955 villages there by planting 25 million trees.

Mount Sinabung Volcano of Indonesia erupts

In News:

The Mount Sinabung of Indonesia has erupted again. The volcano was dormant for 400 years and erupted recently in the year 2010 and in 2014.

Details:

The volcano is the most active in the country. It is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire that has more than 120 active volcanos.

Mount Sinabung is located in the North Sumatra Island of Indonesia.

Ring of Fire:

The Pacific Ring of Fire is a major area in the Pacific Ocean where volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occur. Around 90% of world earthquake occur in the region. The ring of fire is a direct result of plate tectonics.

Plate Tectonics:

The Ring of Fire is caused due to the collisions of Lithospheric plates. They are as follows

Volcanos in India:

The only active volcano in India is located in Barren Island, Andaman Islands. They are Narcondam in Andaman Islands, Baratang in Andaman Islands, Dhosi Hills in Haryana, Dhinodhar Hills in Gujarat and Tosham Hills in Haryana.

The volcanos in Andaman are dormant and the rest are extinct.

Types of Volcanos:

An Active Volcano is a volcano that has at least one eruption in the last 10,000 years. An active volcano might be erupting or dormant. A Dormant Volcano is an active volcano that is not erupting but is supposed to erupt again. An extinct volcano erupts for at least 10,000 years and not expected to erupt again.

Huge amount of Carbon Dioxide released by Himalayan Geothermal Springs

In News:

The Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology operating under the Department of Science and Technology investigated gas emissions in the springs of Himalayas. According to the study, the springs in the Himalayan region show a significant discharge of carbon dioxide.

Details:

There are more than 600 Geothermal springs in the Himalayan region. They play a major role in regional and global climate. They are spread across 10,000 square kilo metres.

Key Findings of the Study:

The carbon dioxide released from the thermal springs are sourced from metamorphic decarbonation of carbonate rocks, magmatism and oxidation of graphite. These rocks are present in the deep Himalayan core. The Geothermal rocks in the region are dominated by evaporation and weathering of silicate rocks. The Isotopic analyses point that there are meteoric sources of geothermal water.

The scientists collected samples from 20 Geothermal springs in the major fault zones of Garhwal Himalayas. The samples consisted of isotopic measurements such as oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon.

Carbon Cycle:

The carbon outflux from the interior of the earth through volcanic eruptions, geothermal systems and fault zones contribute to global carbon cycle. It affects long term and short-term climate of the earth.

Carbon Cycle involves series of processes where carbon compounds are interconverted in the environment. It involves incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to atmosphere by respiration, burning of fossil fuels and decay of dead organisms.

The four main steps of carbon cycle are photosynthesis, decomposition, respiration and combustion.

Geothermal Springs:

Water on the earth’s surface percolates into porous rocks and is subjected to intense heat. When this water matter comes in contact with hot magma in the lower part of the crust, they are converted into steam. As more and more water get converted into steam, the pressure increases. The increased pressure forces the steam through vents beneath the earth’s surface. The steam gets converted into hot spring water as it reaches the surface due to decrease in pressure.