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13th October Current Affairs

The Court and the problem with its collegium

(GS-II: Judiciary- Structure, functioning and conduct of business, issues with the collegium system)

Issues with the Collegium system:

Extra-constitutional or non-constitutional body: brought in force by judgments of the Supreme Court.

No seat for Non-Judge: There is no seat in the collegium for any non-judge neither from the executive, the Bar etc. This violates the principle of checks and balances.

Opaqueness: lack of transparency as meetings are held a closed door.

Nepotism: Scope for nepotism.

Overlooks talent: Overlooks several talented junior judges and advocates.

Issues with judicial appointments:

‘Biased’ Collegium: Successive collegiums not putting forth names disliked by the Government.

No one from ‘distinguished’ Jurist: There have been no appointments from the category of distinguished jurists (under Article 124)

Preserve of judges: Appointments to the top court seem to be the preserve of judges from the High Courts with a handful of appointments from the Bar.

Way forward:

Transparency: There is a need to revisit this and secure a better, broad-based and transparent method of appointing senior judges to the High Courts and the Supreme Court.

Constitutional mandates: Some nodding acknowledgement should be given to a specific provision made by the founding fathers in the Constitution.

Nanaji Deshmukh

In News:

Nanaji Deshmukh was born on 11th October 1916 in Maharashtra’s Hingoli district.

His contribution:

Social Reformer, educationist, and politicians (Janata Party)

Established Chitrakoot Gramodya Vishwavijyalaya (India’s 1st rural university)

Influenced by: Lokamanya Tilak and his nationalist ideology.

He actively participated in Acharya Vinoba Bhave’s Bhoodan

Deshmukh was the main force behind social activist Jayaprakash Narayan’s agitation for total revolution.

In 2019, the President of India, conferred the Bharat Ratnaupon him (posthumously) for his services to the nation.

Values: Compassion, Service to people, Patriotism, political acumen.


In News:

PM-DevINE, was announced in the Union Budget 2022-23 to address development gaps in the North Eastern Region (NER).


Fund infrastructure convergently, in the spirit of PM GatiShakti

Support social development projects: Based on felt needs of the NER

Enable livelihood activities: for youth and women

Developmental gaps: Fill the development gaps in various sectors.

Key Highlights:

Efforts will be made to complete the PMDevINE projects by 2025-26.

Funding: It will have 100% Central funding.

Implementation: PMDevINE will be implemented by the Ministry of DoNER through the North Eastern Council or Central Ministries/ agencies.

End-to-end development: It will provide an end-to-end development solution instead of isolated projects.

No duplication of projects: It will ensure that there is no duplication of project support under PMDevINE with any of the other schemes of MDoNER or those of any other Ministry/ Department.

IMF’s latest world economy report: Red flags for India

In News:

The central message of the International Monetary Fund’s latest World Economic Outlook (WEO) is worst is yet to come for the world economy.

Key highlights of the report:

More than a third of the global economy will contract this year or next, while the three largest economies—the United States, the European Union, and China—will continue to stall.

Inflation remains the most immediate threat to current and future prosperity.

Global inflation is now expected to peak at 9.5 per cent in late 2022.

IMF has sharply cut the forecast for global growth — from 6.0 per cent in 2021 to 3.2 per cent in 2022 and 2.7 per cent in 2023- weakest in the decades.

Cause of challenge to the global economy: Russian invasion of Ukraine, broadening inflation pressures, and the slowdown in China.

What does it mean for India?

India’s GDP growth rate is better and inflation is not as high.

The threat to India comes from at least four sources:

higher crude oil and fertiliser prices will spike domestic inflation.

Global slowdown will hurt exports, dragging down domestic growth and worsening the trade deficit.

A strong dollar will put pressure on the rupee’s exchange rate.

Also, given the low demand among most Indians, the government might be forced to spend more.

What is World Economic Outlook?

It is a survey by the IMF that is usually published twice a year in the months of April and October.  It analyses and predicts global economic developments during the near and medium term. Other report published by IMF is the Global Financial Stability report.

The grandeur of the Chola Empire

(GS-I: Syllabus Ancient India (Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times))

Later Chola Dynasty:

Chola dynasty ruled from 850 to 1279 AD from Vijalaya Aditya I to Rajendra III, up to the end of the dynasty.

Sources of History:

Literary sources, such as Tamil literature flourished during this period.

Rise in bhakti saints and compilation of hyms reflect sociocultural features of that period

Muvarula, and Kamba Ramayanam, the great epic, belong to this period.

Uttarameruru Inscription issued by Pranthaka Chola gives details of election to local self-government bodies.

Famous rulers:

Rajaraja I (985 – 1014 A.D.)- engaged in naval expeditions and emerged victorious on the West Coast, Sri Lanka and conquered the Maldives in the Indian Ocean.

He completed the construction of the famous Rajarajeswara temple or Brihadeeswara temple at Tanjore in 1010 A.D.

Rajendra I (1012-1044 A.D.) – founded the city of Gangaikondacholapuram, annexed complete Ceylon, got the title Pandita Chola and constructed the famous Rajesvaram temple.

Rajendra III – the last Chola king who was defeated by Jatavarman Sundarapandya II

On the ruins of the Chola empire, Pandya and Hoysala kingdoms came into existence.

Administration: Chola Empire was divided into mandalams and each mandalam was into valanadus and nadus.

In each nadu there were a number of autonomous villages.

The royal princes or officers were in charge of mandalam.

Various units of land measurement are kuli,ma, veli, patti, padagam, etc.

The tax rates were fixed depending on the fertility of the soil.

Architecture: Chola art saw the culmination of Dravida temple art.

They followed the architectural style of the

They used material of stone instead of bricks due to their greater durability.

The temples had a Garbhaghriha(Deity room); Vimana(Brihadeshwara Temple); Shikhara(Stone weighing 90 tonnes);

Metal Art(Nataraja at Chidamabaram Temple) Lofty Gates

Presence of a water tank is the unique feature of Chola architecture.

Chola bronze sculptures: The well-known dancing figure of Shiva as Nataraja evolved and fully developed during the Chola Period.

The bronze casting technique and the making of bronze images of traditional icons reached a high stage of development during this period.