GS 3 : Environment and Ecology
Context: World Migratory Bird Day was observed on 13th May 2023.
GS 2 : International Relations
GS 2 : International Relations – Regional and Global Groupings
GS 2 : International Relations –Regional and Global Groupings
Second G20 Culture Group (CWG)
GS 1 : Geography (Physical geography – Climatology, Important Geophysical phenomena), GS-III: Disaster Management
As per the latest forecast from the India Meteorological Department (IMD), cyclone Mocha, currently located in the eastern Bay of Bengal, is likely to be stronger than initially forecast but poses little threat to India.
It is a Tropical cyclone that originated over the Bay of Bengal.
1. It has grown from being very severe to an extremely severe storm over the East-central Bay of Bengal
2. Naming of the cyclone: Upon the suggestion of Yemen, the cyclone has been given a name after a port city situated in the
Red Sea that is renowned for its coffee production.
3. An extremely severe cyclone‘ is just one grade below a ‗super cyclonic storm‘, with wind speeds ranging from 168 to 221
4. Many parts of the Andaman and Nicobar islands will see strong rains and winds, with many parts of Tripura, Mizoram,
Nagaland, Manipur and south Assam likely to receive significant rain.
What are Tropical Cyclones?
1. The Tropical Cyclones are violent storms that originate over oceans in tropical areas and move over to coastal areas
bringing about large-scale destruction caused by violent winds, very heavy rainfall and storm surges.
2. These are low pressure weather systems in which winds equal or exceed speeds of 62kmph.
3. Winds circulate around in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern
4. Tropical‖ refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form almost exclusively over tropical seas.
5. Cyclone‖ refers to their winds moving in a circle, whirling round their central clear eye, with their winds blowing counter
clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
6. The opposite direction of circulation is due to the Coriolis effect.
Tropical Cyclones in India
1.Tropical cyclones striking India generally originate in the eastern side of India.
2. Bay of Bengal is more prone to cyclone than Arabian Sea because it gets high sea surface temperature, low vertical shear
winds and has enough moisture in middle layers of its atmosphere.PHONE: 7034001004 E-MAIL:
3. The frequency of cyclones in this region is bi-modal, i.e., Cyclones occur in the months of May–June and October–
Conditions for cyclone formation:
1. A warm sea surface (temperature in excess of 26o –27o C) and associated warming extending up to a depth of 60m with
abundant water vapour.
2. High relative humidity in the atmosphere up to a height of about 5,000 metres.
3. Atmospheric instability that encourages the formation of cumulus clouds.
4. Low vertical wind between the lower and higher levels of the atmosphere that do not allow the heat generated and released
by the clouds to get transported from the area.
5. The presence of cyclonic vorticity (rate of rotation of air) that initiates and favours rotation of the air cyclonically.
6. Location over the ocean, at least 4–5 o latitude away from the equator.
How are Tropical Cyclones Formed?
1. Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. Warm water > Evaporation > Rising up of air >
Low Pressure area.
2. They derive their energy through the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which ultimately re-condenses into
clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to saturation.
3. Water takes up heat from the atmosphere to change into vapour.
4. When water vapour changes back to liquid form as raindrops, this heat is released to the atmosphere.
5. The heat released to the atmosphere warms the air around.
6. The air tends to rise and causes a drop in the pressure.
7. More air rushes to the centre of the storm.
8. This cycle is repeated.PHONE: 7034001004 E-MAIL: firstname.lastname@example.org WEBSITE: www.alchemyias.com
Why tropical cyclones don‘t form in the eastern tropical oceans?
1. The depth of warm water (26-27°C) should extend for 60-70 m from surface of the ocean/sea, so that deep convection
currents within the water do not churn and mix the cooler water below with the warmer water near the surface.
2. The above condition occurs only in western tropical oceans because of warm ocean currents (easterly trade winds pushes
ocean waters towards west) that flow from east towards west forming a thick layer of water with temperatures greater than
27°C. This supplies enough moisture to the storm.
3. The cold currents lower the surface temperatures of the eastern parts of the tropical oceans making them unfit for the
breeding of cyclonic storms.
4. ONE EXCEPTION: During strong El Nino years, strong hurricanes occur in the eastern Pacific. This is due to the
accumulation of warm waters in the eastern Pacific due to weak Walker Cell.
Names of Tropical Cyclones
Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names:
Structure of the tropical cyclone
Tropical cyclones are compact, circular storms, generally some 320 km (200 miles) in diameter, whose winds swirl around
a central region of low atmospheric pressure. The winds are driven by this low-pressure core and by the rotation of Earth,
which deflects the path of the wind through a phenomenon known as the Coriolis force. As a result, tropical cyclones
rotate in a counter clockwise (or cyclonic) direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in a clockwise (or anticyclonic)
direction in the Southern Hemisphere.
temperatures, and low atmospheric pressure. Typically, atmospheric pressure at the surface of Earth is about
strongest, rainfall is heaviest, and deep convective clouds rise from close to Earth‘s surface to a height of 15,000
rainbands are stationary relative to the centre of the moving storm, and in other cases they seem to rotate
around the centre.
Landfall, what happens when a Cyclone reaches land from the ocean?
1. Tropical cyclones dissipate when they can no longer extract sufficient energy from warm ocean water.
2. A storm that moves over land will abruptly lose its fuel source and quickly lose intensity.
3. A tropical cyclone can contribute to its own demise by stirring up deeper, cooler ocean waters. tropical cyclone can
contribute to its own demise by stirring up deeper, cooler ocean waters.
Cyclone Management in India
India is highly vulnerable to natural disasters especially cyclones, earthquakes, floods, landslides, and drought. Natural
disasters cause a loss of 2% of GDP every year in India. According to the Home ministry, 8% of total area in India is prone
to cyclones. India has a coastline of 7,516 km, of which 5,700 km are prone to cyclones of various degrees.
1. Loss due to cyclones: Loss of lives, livelihood opportunities, damage to public and private property and severe damage to
infrastructure are the resultant consequences, which can disrupt the process of development
2. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) is the nodal agency for early warning of cyclones and floods.
3. Natural Disaster Management Authority is mandated to deal with the disaster management in India. It has prepared
National Guidelines on Management of Cyclone.
4. National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) was launched by Home ministry to upgrade the forecasting, tracking
and warning about cyclones in states.
5. National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) has done a commendable performance in rescuing and managing relief work.
6. National Disaster Response Reserve (NDRR)– a fund of 250 crores operated by NDRF for maintaining inventory for an
7. In 2016, a blueprint of National Disaster Management Plan was unveiled to tackle disaster. It provides a framework to deal
with prevention, mitigation, response and recovery during a disaster. According to the plan, Ministry of earth science will
be responsible for disaster management of cyclone. By this plan, India joined the list of countries which follow the Sendai
Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.
8. Due to increased awareness and tracking of Cyclone, the death toll has been reduced substantially. For example, Very
severe cyclone Hudhud and Phailin claimed lives of around 138 and 45 people respectively, which might have been more.
It was reduced due to the early warning and relocation of the population from the cyclone-hit areas. Very severe cyclone
Ockhi claimed many lives of people in Tamil Nadu and Kerala. This was due to the unprecedented change in the direction
of the cyclone.
9. But the destruction of infrastructure due to cyclonic hit is not been reduced which leads to increase in poverty due to the
economic weakening of the affected population.
GS 2 : Polity and Governance
Recently, the Supreme court of India found serious lapses and uncertainty in the implementation of the Protection of Women from Sexual Harassment (PoSH) Act.
The Apex court in its recent judgement indicated the ―sorry state of affairs‖ concerning the anti-sexual harassment at
workplace law even after a decade of its introduction.
1. The court observed that-―Being a victim of such a deplorable act not only dents the self-esteem of a woman, it also takes a
toll on her emotional, mental and physical health. It is often seen that when women face sexual harassment at the
workplace, they are reluctant to report such misconduct. Many of them even drop out from their job‖ .
2. It asked the Centre and States to take affirmative action.
Issues in PoSH Act:
1. Working Environment:
The working environment continues to remain hostile, insensitive and unresponsive to the needs of women employees.
2. Reluctance to report:
Working women are often reluctant to report instances of sexual harassment either due to uncertainty about whom to
approach or because of their lack of confidence in the process itself and its outcome.
There must be strict adherence to the enforcement regime and a proactive approach by all the State and non-State actors.
3. Not establishing Internal Complaints Committees (ICCs):
The court pointed out a latest newspaper survey which revealed that out of 30 national sports federations in the country,
only 16 had constituted Internal Complaints Committees mandated under the 2013 Act.
What exactly is the law against sexual harassment of women at the workplace?
1. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, commonly known as the
PoSH Act, was passed in 2013.
2. It defined sexual harassment, lay down the procedures for complaint and inquiry, and the action to be taken in cases of
What led to the creation of the PoSH Act?
1. In 1992, a social worker named Bhanwari Devi fought against the marriage of a one-year-old baby girl.
2. As retribution, she was allegedly gang-raped.
3. Women‘s rights groups, including one called Vishaka, filed a case in court over the incident.
4. In 1997, the Supreme Court laid down the Vishaka Guidelines in response to the case.
5. The guidelines defined sexual harassment and placed three obligations on institutions: prohibition, prevention, redress.
6. The guidelines required institutions to establish a Complaints Committee to investigate matters of sexual harassment of
women in the workplace.
7. The court made the guidelines legally binding.
What are the key provisions of the PoSH Act regarding the complaints committee?
Internal Complaints Committee (ICC):
1. The PoSH Act mandates that every employer with 10 or more employees must constitute an Internal Complaints
Committee (ICC) at each office or branch.
2. The ICC is responsible for investigating complaints of sexual harassment in the workplace.
3. The ICC must have at least one external member who is familiar with issues relating to sexual harassment.
Definition of sexual harassment:
4. The PoSH Act defines various aspects of sexual harassment, including physical, verbal, and non-verbal acts.
5. The Act covers all women, whether employed at the workplace or not, who allege to have been subjected to any act of
Protection for women:
1. The PoSH Act protects the rights of all women who are working or visiting any workplace, in any capacity.
2. The Act ensures that women can file complaints without fear of retaliation or victimization.
What constitutes sexual harassment under the PoSH Act?
Under the 2013 law, sexual harassment includes ―any one or more‖ of the following ―unwelcome acts or behaviour‖
committed directly or by implication:
Physical contact and advances
A demand or request for sexual favours
Sexually coloured remarks
Any other unwelcome physical, verbal or non-verbal conduct of sexual nature.
A Handbook on Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace‘ published by the Ministry of Women & Child Development
contains more detailed instances of behaviour that constitutes sexual harassment at the workplace. These circumstances
Sexually suggestive remarks or innuendo; serious or repeated offensive remarks; inappropriate questions or remarks
about a person‘s sex life;
Display of sexist or offensive pictures, posters, MMS, SMS, WhatsApp, or emails
Intimidation, threats, blackmail around sexual favours;
Threats, intimidation or retaliation against an employee who speaks up about these;
Unwelcome social invitations with sexual overtones, commonly seen as flirting; and
Unwelcome sexual advances.
The Handbook says ―unwelcome behaviour‖ is experienced when the victim feels bad or powerless, and when it causes
anger/ sadness or negative self-esteem. Unwelcome behaviour is ―illegal, demeaning, invading, one-sided and power
In addition, the PoSH Act mentions five circumstances that amount to sexual harassment:
1. Implied or explicit promise of preferential treatment in her employment;
2. Implied or explicit threat of detrimental treatment;
3. Implied or explicit threat about the complainant‘s present or future employment status;
4. Interference with the complainant‘s work or creating an offensive or hostile work environment;
5. Humiliating treatment of the complainant that is likely to affect her health or safety.
What is the procedure for complaint under the Act?
1. It is not compulsory for the aggrieved victim to file a complaint for the ICC to take action. The Act says that she ―may‖ do
so — and if she cannot, any member of the ICC ―shall‖ render ―all reasonable assistance‖ to her to complain in writing.
2. If the woman cannot complain because of ―physical or mental incapacity or death or otherwise‖, her legal heir may do so.
3. Under the Act, the complaint must be made ―within three months from the date of the incident‖.
4. However, the ICC can ―extend the time limit‖ if ―it is satisfied that the circumstances were such which prevented the
woman from filing a complaint within the said period
5. The ICC ―may‖, before inquiry, and ―at the request of the aggrieved woman, take steps to settle the matter between her
and the respondent through conciliation‖ — provided that ―no monetary settlement shall be made as a basis of
6. The ICC may either forward the victim‘s complaint to the police, or it can start an inquiry that has to be completed within
7. The ICC has powers similar to those of a civil court in respect of summoning and examining any person on oath, and
requiring the discovery and production of documents.
8. When the inquiry is completed, the ICC must provide a report of its findings to the employer within 10 days. The report
must also be made available to both parties.
9. The identity of the woman, respondent, witness, any information on the inquiry, recommendation and action taken, should
not be made public.
What is the process after the ICC has filed its report?
Action by employer:
1. If the allegations of sexual harassment are proved, the ICC will recommend to the employer to take action in accordance
with the provisions of the service rules of the company.
2. The recommended action may vary from company to company.
1. The ICC may recommend that the company deduct the salary of the person found guilty as it may consider appropriate.
2. The compensation awarded is based on several factors, including the suffering and emotional distress caused to the
woman, loss in career opportunity, her medical expenses, income and financial status of the respondent, and the
feasibility of such payment.
1. If either the aggrieved woman or the respondent is not satisfied with the decision, they may appeal in court within 90 days.
What protection does the Act provide against false complaints of sexual harassment?
1. Section 14 of the Act deals with punishment for false or malicious complaints and false evidence.
2. In such a case, the ICC may recommend to the employer that action be taken against the woman or the person who made
the complaint in accordance with the provisions of the service rules of the company.
Protection against false complaints:
3. The Act makes it clear that action cannot be taken for mere inability to substantiate the complaint or provide adequate
4. This means that if the complaint is not proved, action cannot be taken against the complainant solely based on lack of
GS 2 : Polity and Governance
The high-level committee responsible for selecting the next director of India‘s Central Bureau of
Investigation (CBI) is set to select a new director or extend the tenure of the incumbent, Subodh Kumar
Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)
1. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) was set up in 1963 after the recommendation of Santhanam
committee under Ministry of Home affairs and was later transferred to the Ministry of Personnel and now it
enjoys the status of an attached office.
2. Now, the CBI comes under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) of
the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
3. The CBI derives its powers from the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act, 1946, however, it is NOT a
4. CBI is the apex anti-corruption body in the country – Along with being the main investigating agency of the
Central Government it also provides assistance to the Central Vigilance Commission and Lokpal.
5. The CBI is required to obtain the prior approval of the Central Government before conducting any inquiry or
6. The CBI is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigations on behalf of Interpol
7. The CBI‘s conviction rate is as high as 65 to 70% and it is comparable to the best investigation agencies in
8. The CBI is headed by a Director and he is assisted by a special director or an additional director. It has joint
directors, deputy inspector generals, superintendents of police.
CBI has following divisions
Economic Offences Division
Special Crimes Division
Policy and International Police Cooperation Division
Directorate of Prosecution
Central Forensic Science Laboratory
How is the Director of the CBI appointed?
1. The selection process for the CBI director is highly competitive, and the position is one of the most sought
after postings in India‘s civil service.
The tenure of the CBI director is limited to a fixed two-year term, which can be extended up to a maximum of
An amendment made to the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act and CVC Act in 2021 enables the
extension of the director‘s term by up to three years, one year at a time, in ―public interest‖.
The Central Government shall appoint the Director of CBI on the recommendation of a three-member
committee consisting of the Prime Minister as Chairperson, the Leader of Opposition in the Lok Sabha and
the Chief Justice of India or Judge of the Supreme Court (SC) nominated by him.
Functions of CBI:
1. Investigating cases of corruption, bribery and misconduct of Central government employees
2. Investigating cases relating to infringement of fiscal and economic laws, that is, breach of laws concerning
export and import control, customs and central excise, income tax, foreign exchange regulations and so on.
However, such cases are taken up either in consultation with or at the request of the department concerned.
3. Investigating serious crimes, having national and international ramifications, committed by organized gangs
of professional criminals.
4. Coordinating the activities of the anti-corruption agencies and the various state police forces.
5. Taking up, on the request of a state government, any case of public importance for investigation.
6. Maintaining crime statistics and disseminating criminal information.
7. The CBI acts as the ―National Central Bureau‖ of Interpol in India.
Challenges of CBI –
1. The CBI has been dubbed a ―caged parrot speaking in its master‘s voice‖ by the Supreme Court of India due
to excessive political influence in its operations. It has frequently been utilised by the government to conceal
misdeeds, keep coalition allies in line, and keep political opponents at away. It has been accused of massive
delays in concluding investigations, such as in its investigation into high-ranking Jain dignitaries in the Jain
hawala diaries case [in the 1990s].
2. Loss of Credibility: Improving the agency‘s image has been one of the most difficult challenges so far, as the
agency has been chastised for its mishandling of several high-profile cases, including the Bofors scandal,
the Hawala scandal, the Sant Singh Chatwal case, the Bhopal gas tragedy, and the 2008 Noida double murder
case (Aarushi Talwar).
3. Lack of Accountability: CBI is exempt from the Right to Information Act, which means it is not accountable to
4. Acute staff shortage: One of the key causes of the shortfall is the government‘s mishandling of the CBI‘s
employees, which includes an inefficient and inexplicably biassed recruitment policy that was utilised to
bring in favoured officials, possibly to the organization‘s damage.
5. Limited Authority: Members of the CBI‘s investigative powers and jurisdiction are subject to the consent of
the State Government, restricting the scope of the CBI‘s inquiry.
6. Restricted Access: Obtaining prior authorisation from the Central Government to initiate an inquiry or probe
into Central Government workers at the level of Joint Secretary and above is a major impediment to tackling
corruption at the highest levels of government.