President Joe Biden and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson recently inspected documents related to the Atlantic Charter, a declaration signed by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in August 1941.
The two leaders plan to sign what they’re calling a new Atlantic Charter, pledging to “defend the principles, values, and institutions of democracy and open societies.”
About Atlantic Charter:
The Atlantic Charter was a joint declaration issued during World War II (1939-45) by the United States and Great Britain that set out a vision for the postwar world.
First announced on August 14, 1941, a group of 26 Allied nations eventually pledged their support by January 1942.
Among its major points were a nation’s right to choose its own government, the easing of trade restrictions and a plea for postwar disarmament.
The document is considered one of the first key steps toward the establishment of the United Nations in 1945.
What Was Included In The Atlantic Charter?
The Atlantic Charter included eight common principles. This includes:
The United States and Britain agreed not to seek territorial gains from the war, and they opposed any territorial changes made against the wishes of the people concerned.
To support the restoration of self-government to those nations who had lost it during the war.
People should have the right to choose their own form of government.
Delhi’s Master Plan 2041, its key areas and challenges
The Delhi Development Authority has gave its preliminary approval to the draft Master Plan for Delhi 2041. The draft is now in the public domain for objections and suggestions from citizens, after which it will be enforced.
Firstly, what is a master plan?
A master plan of any city is like a vision document by the planners and the land-owning agency of the city, which gives a direction to the future development. It includes analysis, recommendations, and proposals keeping in mind the population, economy, housing, transportation, community facilities, and land use.
What is the Master Plan 2041 for Delhi?
It seeks to “foster a sustainable, liveable and vibrant Delhi by 2041”.
In the housing sector, it talks about incentivising rented accommodation by inviting private players and government agencies to invest more, keeping in mind the large migrant population.
‘User pays’ principle: To address parking problems, it suggests a ‘user pays’ principle, which means users of all personal motor vehicles, except for non-motorised ones, have to pay for authorised parking facilities, spaces and streets.
It aims to minimise vehicular pollution through key strategies, including a switch to greener fuels for public transport and adoption of mixed-use of transit-oriented development (also known as TOD).
The draft lays a clear boundary of the buffer zone near the Yamuna river– 300-metre width shall be maintained wherever feasible along the entire edge of the river.
Changes proposed in the wake of pandemic:
It aims to develop common community spaces to provide refuge spots, common kitchens and quarantine space in an emergency.
To improve the nighttime economy, the plan focuses on cultural festivals, bus entertainment, metro, sports facilities, and retail stores included in Delhi Development Authority (DDA)’s Night Life Circuit plan.
It also proposes to reduce vulnerability to airborne epidemics through decentralised workspaces, mandatory creation of open areas, better habitat design and green-rated developments to reduce dependence on mechanical ventilation systems.
Challenges in implementation:
Breach of privilege motion
CPI MP Binoy Viswam has filed a breach of privilege motion against the Lakshadweep Administrator Praful K. Patel for denying him permission to visit the islands.
The MP has said that the Right of a parliamentarian to move freely and meet with the people is integral to the privilege of their position itself.
The district administration has responded saying that the MP was not allowed to visit as per the Covid protocols in place.
What are Parliamentary Privileges?
Parliamentary Privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”.
Article 105 of the Constitution expressly mentions two privileges, that is, freedom of speech in Parliament and right of publication of its proceedings.
Apart from the privileges as specified in the Constitution, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, provides for freedom from arrest and detention of members under civil process during the continuance of the meeting of the House or of a committee thereof and forty days before its commencement and forty days after its conclusion.
Motion against breaches:
When any of these rights and immunities are disregarded, the offence is called a breach of privilege and is punishable under law of Parliament.
A notice is moved in the form of a motion by any member of either House against those being held guilty of breach of privilege.
Role of the Speaker/Rajya Sabha (RS) Chairperson:
The Speaker/RS chairperson is the first level of scrutiny of a privilege motion.
The Speaker/Chair can decide on the privilege motion himself or herself or refer it to the privileges committee of Parliament.
If the Speaker/Chair gives consent under relevant rules, the member concerned is given an opportunity to make a short statement.
The Constitution also extends the parliamentary privileges to those persons who are entitled to speak and take part in the proceedings of a House of Parliament or any of its committees. These include the Attorney General of India.
The parliamentary privileges do not extend to the President who is also an integral part of the Parliament. Article 361 of the Constitution provides for privileges for the President.
Nagaland to form panel on Naga issue
The Nagaland government has decided to institute a committee comprising Opposition leaders to pursue the lingering Naga peace agreement and the Naga political issue with the Centre.
The panel is headed by Chief Minister Neiphiu Rio.
How old is the Naga political issue?
The British annexed Assam in 1826, and in 1881, the Naga Hills too became part of British India. The first sign of Naga resistance was seen in the formation of the Naga Club in 1918, which told the Simon Commission in 1929 “to leave us alone to determine for ourselves as in ancient times”.
In 1946 came the Naga National Council (NNC), which declared Nagaland an independent state on August 14, 1947.
The NNC resolved to establish a “sovereign Naga state” and conducted a “referendum” in 1951, in which “99 per cent” supported an “independent” Nagaland.
On March 22, 1952, underground Naga Federal Government (NFG) and the Naga Federal Army (NFA) were formed. The Government of India sent in the Army to crush the insurgency and, in 1958, enacted the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act.
Agreement in this regard:
The NSCN (IM) entered into a ceasefire agreement with the Centre in 1997 and the two have been holding talks since then, while a conglomerate of seven different Naga national political groups (NNPGs) also got into separate talks with the Centre since 2017.
The Centre signed a “framework agreement” with NSCN (IM) in 2015, and an “agreed position” with the NNPGs in 2017. However, the NSCN (IM)’s demand for a separate Naga flag and constitution has been a delaying factor in signing a final deal on the protracted Naga political issue.