Globally, intelligence and law enforcement agencies are arguing that end-to-end encryption makes it much harder to track terrorists, pedophiles and human traffickers as it makes it nearly impossible for them to get access to people’s digital communications.
End-to-end encryption takes place on either end of a communication. A message is encrypted on a sender’s device, sent to the recipient’s device in an unreadable format, then decoded for the recipient.
For doing this, a program on your device mathematically generates two cryptographic keys — a public key and a private key.
The public key can be shared with anyone who wants to encrypt a message to you. The private key, or secret key, decrypts messages sent to you and never leaves your device.
Comparison with transport layer encryption:
Transport layer encryption relies on a third party, like a tech company, to encrypt messages as they move across the web.
With this type of encryption, law enforcement and intelligence agencies can get access to encrypted messages by presenting technology companies with a warrant or national security letter. The sender and recipient would not have to know about it.
End-to-end encryption ensures that no one can eavesdrop on the contents of a message while it is in transit. It forces spies or snoops to go directly to the sender or recipient to read the content of the encrypted message.
National Archives of India
The Minister of Culture and Tourism informed Lok Sabha that the Government of India has de-classified all records relating to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose and Azad Hind Fauj and placed them in the National Archives of India.
Accordingly, a total of 304 declassified records/files have been transferred to National Archives of India by above mentioned Ministries/Offices for permanent retention. Out of 304 files, 303 files are already uploaded on the Netaji web portal i.e. www.netajipapers.gov.in
The National Archives of India is the custodian of declassified files/records of the Government of India.
About National Archives of India:
The National Archives of India is an Attached Office under the Ministry of Culture.
It was established in 1891 at Kolkata (Calcutta) as the Imperial Record Department.
Following the transfer of the capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911, the present building of the National Archives of India was constructed in 1926 in Delhi.
There are over 50 lakhs files/documents presently in the holdings in the National Archives of India.
Prevalence Of Anaemia Among Women And Children In Urban And Rural India
Government informed Lok Sabha about the prevalence of Anaemia among women and children in urban and rural India.
The data, based on the findings of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) IV (2015-16), divide the incidence of anaemia into ‘Mild’, ‘Moderate’ and ‘Severe’ kinds for both rural and urban India.
As per the details, 29.8% of children in rural India suffer from moderate anaemia, and 40.3% of women in the villages are mildly anaemic.
As many as 58.5% of children between the ages of 6 months and 59 months, and 53.1% of women between the ages of 15 and 49 years, are anaemic in the country.
Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) Strategy:
In 2018, the union government launched the Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) Strategy under POSHAN Abhiyaan to reduce anaemia prevalence by three percentage points every year till 2022.
AMB is a 6x6x6 strategy that is targeting six age groups, with six interventions and six institutional mechanisms.
The six age groups include pre-school children (6-59 months), children (5-9 years), adolescent girls (10-19 years), adolescent boys (10-19 years), women of reproductive age group (15-49), and pregnant women and lactating mothers.
Among the six interventions are prophylactic iron folic acid supplementation, periodic deworming, and addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets, with special focus on malaria, haemoglobinopathies and fluorosis, the Minister said.
Institutional mechanisms include a National Anaemia Mukt Bharat Unit, and a National Centre of Excellence and Advanced Research on Anaemia Control.
Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes Bill, 2019
Parliament has passed the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes Bill, 2019, with the Rajya Sabha approving it. The Lok Sabha has already passed the bill.
Salient Features of Bill:
Any production, import, export, transport, sale (including online sale) or advertisement (including online advertisement) of e-cigarettes shall be a cognizable offence punishable with an imprisonment of up to one year or fine up to Rs. 1 lakh or both for the first offence.
For a subsequent offence, there will be imprisonment of up to 3 years and fine up to Rs. 5 lakh.
Storage of electronic-cigarettes shall also be punishable with an imprisonment up to 6 months or fine up to Rs 50,000 or both.
The Sub-Inspector of Police has been designated as the Authorized Officer to take action under the Ordinance. The Central or State Governments may also designate any other equivalent officer(s) as Authorized Officer for enforcement of the provisions of the Ordinance.
Electronic-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that produce aerosol by heating a solution containing nicotine, which is the addictive substance in combustible cigarettes.
These include all forms of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), Heat Not Burn Products, e-Hookah and the like devices.
Their use has increased exponentially and has acquired epidemic proportions in developed countries, especially among youth and children. These products are usually marketed as being safer alternatives for conventional cigarettes but such notions of safety are false.
Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA)
Union Cabinet has approved the signing of Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) and Protocol between India and the Republic of Chile.
About Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA):
Double Tax Avoidance Agreements (DTAAs) is a tax treaty signed between two or more countries.
The objective of DTAA is that tax-payers in these countries can avoid being taxed twice for the same income.
A DTAA applies in cases where a taxpayer resides in one country and earns income in another.
DTAAs can either be comprehensive to cover all sources of income or be limited to certain areas such as taxing of income from shipping, air transport, and inheritance among others.
DTAAs are intended to make a country an attractive investment destination by providing relief on dual taxation.
DTAAs also provide for concessional rates of tax in some of the cases.
However, DTAAs can also become an incentive for even legitimate investors to route investments through low-tax regimes to sidestep taxation. This leads to loss of tax revenue for the country.
About Base Erosion and Profit Shifting:
Base erosion and profit shifting refers to the activities of multinational corporations to shift their profits from high tax jurisdictions to lower tax jurisdiction, thereby eroding the tax base of the high tax jurisdictions and depriving them of tax revenue.
In order to combat this, many countries entered into agreements to share tax information with each other to enhance transparency and make such profit shifting much harder.
Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG)
The Union Minister of Tribal Affairs recently informed about the funds released under the PVTGs scheme, to the Parliament.
About ‘Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)’:
PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.
They have declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
They generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative support.
In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs out of 705 Scheduled Tribes, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).
Scheme for development of PVTGs:
The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.
Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which are then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.
Priority is also assigned to PVTGs under the schemes of Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Scheme(TSS), Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution, Grants-in-aid to Voluntary Organisations working for the welfare of Schedule Tribes and Strengthening of Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts.
The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:
National Pension Scheme for Traders and Self Employed Persons
It is a pension scheme for the Vyaparis (shopkeepers/retail traders and self-employed persons) with annual turnover not exceeding Rs 1.5 crore.
About the scheme:
It is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme.
The enrolment under the scheme is free of cost for the beneficiaries.
The enrolment is based upon self-certification.
It has a provision for minimum assured pension of Rs 3,000/- monthly on attaining the age of 60 years.
The Central Government shall give 50 % share of the monthly contribution and remaining 50% contribution shall be made by the beneficiary.
Beneficiary is required to have an Aadhaar card and a saving bank/ Jan-dhan Account passbook only.
He/ She should be within 18 to 40 years of age group.
GSTIN is required only for those with turnover above Rs. 40 lakhs.
The beneficiary should not be income tax payer and also not a member of EPFO/ESIC/NPS (Govt.)/PM-SYM.
This scheme will target enrolling 25 lakh subscribers in 2019-20 and 2 crore subscribers by 2023-2024. An estimated 3 crore Vyaparis in the country are expected to be benefitted under the pension scheme.