02 September Current Affairs
September 2, 2019
04 September Current Affairs
September 4, 2019
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03 September Current Affairs


In News:

The historic coastal town of Mamallapuram in Tamil Nadu will be the venue for the second India-China informal summit between PM Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping, scheduled in October this year. The first informal summit between them was held in Wuhan in China in April 2018.


Mamallapuram is also known as Seven Pagodas or Mahabalipuram.

It is a town in Chengalpattu district, Tamil Nadu.

Mamallapuram was one of two major port cities by the 7th century within the Pallava kingdom.

The town has a collection of 7th and 8th century religious monuments that has been declared as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Some important structures include: Thirukadalmallai, Descent of the Ganges or Arjuna’s Penance, Varaha Cave Temple and Pancha Rathas (Five Chariots).

Rashtriya Poshan Maah

In News:

The entire month of September 2019 is being celebrated as the Rashtriya Poshan Maah. This year the theme is Complementary Feeding.


Prime Minister’s Overreaching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment – POSHAN Abhiyaan is a multi- ministerial convergence mission with the vision to address malnutrition with a targeted approach by 2022.

Poshan Maah is an initiative of Ministry of Women and Child Development and NITI Aayog to give a push to Poshan Abhiyan.

During Poshan Maah, activities like Prabhat Pheri, Poshan Melas, Nukkad Nataks, School Based Events will be held to take the message of importance of nutrition to every household.

It focuses on 8 themes: (1) Antenatal Care, (2) Optimal Breastfeeding, (3) Complementary Feeding, (4) Anaemia, (5) Growth Monitoring, (6) Girls-education, diet, right age of Marriage, (7) Hygiene & Sanitation, (8) Food Fortification.


In News:

The 14th Conference of Parties, COP14, to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification began in Greater Noida. The Conference will go on till 13th of this month. Over 3000 delegates from across the world will take part in COP14.


United Nations Convention To Combat Desertification (UNCCD) is the first and only internationally legally binding framework set up to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and desertification.

Secretariat location: Bonn, Germany.


1992: Rio conference of 1992 resulted in 5 document’s. One of them was Agenda 21.UNCCD (United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification) stems from a direct recommendation of agenda 21.

1994: UNCCD was finally adopted in Paris, France on June 17, 1994. That’s why June 17 has been observed as the ‘World Day to Combat Desertification (WDCD).

1996: It was ratified in December 1996.

India and UNCCD: India became a signatory to UNCCD on October 14, 1994 and ratified it on December 17, 1996. Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change is the nodal Ministry for the Convention.

Conference of the Parties (COP): It is the supreme decision-making body. It reviews the implementation of the Convention. It meets on a biannual basis.

It’s relationship with other Rio conventions: Joint Liaison Group (JLG)

Since desertification is closely linked with global climate change and loss of biodiversity, thus coordination is required among the three Rio conventions to widen the impact of measures undertaken.

In this direction a Joint Liaison Group (JLG) was established in 2001 between the secretariats of the three conventions. The JLG collects and shares information on the work programmes and operations of each convention.


In News:

President Ram Nath Kovind appointed new Governors for five States namely Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala and Telangana.


Governor is the head of the executive of the state.

He/she is appointed by President of India.

Qualifications and conditions for appointment: 

Should be a citizen of India.

Should have completed 35 years of age.

Should not hold any office of profit under the union govt. or state govt. or any local Authority or any other public authority.

Should not be a member of either house of parliament or a house of the state legislature.


Governor holds office for a term of 5 years from the date on which he assumes office. This term of 5 years is subject to the pleasure of president.

He/she can resign anytime by addressing a resignation letter to the president.

Oath: The oath of office to the governor is administered by the chief justice of concerned HC and in his absence by the senior-most judge of the HC available.

By 7th Constitution Amendment Act of 1956, same person can be appointed as governor of 2 or more states.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq

In News:

Delhi’s Feroz Shah Kotla stadium is set to be renamed Arun Jaitley Stadium after the former Finance Minister, who passed away last month.


Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1309 – 1388) was a Turkic Muslim ruler of the Tughlaq Dynasty, who reigned over the Sultanate of Delhi from 1351 to 1388. He succeeded his cousin Muhammad bin Tughlaq.

During his reign, Firoz Shah did public construction activity on a massive scale.

He built Feroz Shah Kotla, the fortress, on the banks of the Yamuna and called it Firozabad. Firoz Shah was the first ruler to build a fortress next to river Yamuna.

Emperor Ashoka’s pillar, erected near Ambala in 250 BC, was transported to Delhi and placed in Firozabad. At the Ridge in north Delhi stands another Ashokan pillar, smaller in size, near Hindu Rao Hospital. It was moved from Meerut to Delhi by Firoz Shah.

He peppered Delhi with gardens, constructed canals, hunting lodges, built Dargah Qadam Sharif, which is located in Delhi’s Sadar Bazar and repaired Qutub Minar, Hauz Khas (royal tank) and Surajkund (lake of the Sun).

He was also able to create a “multi-lingual, multi-cultural space by providing patronage to poets, musicians, and various linguistic communities”. Under his patronage, premakhyan which is Sufi poetry written in Awadhi grew. It was a new genre of literature.

His autobiography is Futuhat-i-Firozshahi.

Kazi Nazrul Islam

In News:

The 43rd death anniversary of poet Kazi Nazrul Islam was recently observed in Bangladesh.


Born in 1899 near Asansol in West Bengal, Kazi Nazrul was a versatile genius who criticised the British Raj and called for revolution through his poetic works, such as “Bidrohi” and “Bhangar Gaan” as well as in his publication Dhumketu.

His nationalist activism in Indian independence movement led to his frequent imprisonment by the colonial British authorities. While in prison, Nazrul wrote the “Rajbandir Jabanbandi.”

Known as the Rebel Poet or Bidrohi Kobi, Nazrul wrote nearly 3000 songs and composed many of them which are known as Nazrul Geeti. His poems were a source of inspiration during the liberation war of Bangladesh.

At the time of Bangladesh’s independence in 1971 poet Nazrul was staying in Kolkata. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman brought him to Dhaka with state honours. He died in 1976.

He is known as the national poet of Bangladesh.

Foetus In Foetu (FIF)

In News:

When a 17-year-old girl Indian girl recently went to get a “lump” in her abdomen treated, it was found to be her twin growing inside her. This is a condition called foetus in foetu (FIF).


Doctors say this is the first reported case of FIF in an adult woman worldwide, and the eighth such case in an adult in India (the previous cases were in adult men).

Foetus in foetu (FIF), or foetus within a foetus is a condition, in which a malformed parasitic foetus is usually found in the abdominal cavity of the living twin (host).

There are two theories about the origins of FIF.

The first is where a parasitic twin’s malformed foetus is formed inside the body of the host twin and both share the blood supply.

The other is that FIF is a “highly differentiated” form of teratoma – tumours made from tissues foreign to the area or part of the body in which they are found.

What differentiates a FIF from a tumour is that the lumps in the case of FIF are benign (do not spread to other organs and tissues) in nature, and are of embryological origin.

Fewer than 200 cases of this condition have been reported in medical literature and it occurs in about 1 in 5,00,000 live births. While FIF can occur in various age groups, it is most commonly diagnosed in patients younger than 18 months.

Association Of World Election Bodies (A-WEB)

In News:

The Election Commission of India (ECI) is scheduled to host the 4th General Assembly of Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB) at Bengaluru on 3rd September 2019.


India will take over as A-WEB’s Chair for the 2019-21 term.

Over 50 countries across the globe will join the meeting at Bengaluru from 02nd to 04th September, 2019.

An International Conference on “Initiatives and Challenges of Social Media and Information Technology in Elections” will also be held on 04th September, 2019.

The Association of World Election Bodies (A-WEB) is the largest association of Election Management Bodies (EMBs) worldwide.

A-WEB was established In 2013.

The permanent secretariat of A-WEB is located at Seoul, South Korea.

At present A-WEB has 115 EMBs as Members & 20 Regional Associations/Organisations as Associate Members.

Munich Agreement

In News:

On September 1, 1939 — German troops marched into Poland, triggering the beginning of World War II.


Great Britain and France, which had assured help to Poland, declared war on Germany and its allies two days later, on September 3. The beginning of the War exposed to the world the folly of the Munich Agreement.

What is Munich Agreement?

The Agreement was signed among Germany, France, Italy, and Great Britain on September 29-30, 1938. Czechoslovakia, the country whose region was about to be annexed, was not officially party to the Agreement. It was forced to agree to the deal under pressure from Great Britain and France, which had a military alliance with the country.

The Agreement allowed for the cessation to Germany of Sudetenland. The German occupation was to be done in four stages from October 1-10, 1938.

The cessation in some places was subject to a plebiscite.

The Czechoslovak government was supposed to release from their military and police forces within four weeks of the signing of the Agreement, any Sudeten Germans who wished to be released, and all Sudeten German prisoners.


Six months after the Munich Agreement was signed, Hitler went back on his commitments and invaded the whole of Czechoslovakia. War was on its way.

The agreement has been seen as a disastrous act of appeasement of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi regime, and historical evidence that expansionist totalitarianism cannot be dealt with through placation.

‘Build for Digital India’ programme

In News:

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and Google have signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme.

Key features of the programme:

The programme will give engineering students a platform to develop market-ready, technology-based solutions that address key social problems.

Applicants will take part in online and offline learning opportunities on key technologies such as machine learning, cloud and android.

These will be offered through Google’s Developer Student Club network and other Google Developer networks.

Google will also offer mentorship sessions in product design, strategy and technology to the most promising products and prototypes.


This initiative will motivate college students across India to innovate and produce some good technology solutions for major social challenges of India.

The programme will provide great exposure to students in dealing with real world problems and develop deeper understanding of how newer technologies can be used to solve them.

Advanced new technologies such as machine learning and AI can help address at scale some of the toughest social challenges that India faces today.

‘Samudrayaan’ project

In News:

India to undertake deep ocean mining with ‘Samudrayaan’ project.

About Samudrayaan:

It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals.

It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies.

The project is expected to become a reality by 2021-22.

The project has been undertaken by the National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT).


If the ‘Samudrayaan’ project is successful, India will join the league of developed nations in the exploration of minerals from oceans.

India could be the first developing country to undertake such a project.

What are PMN?

Polymetallic nodules (also known as manganese nodules) are potato-shaped, largely porous nodules found in abundance carpeting the sea floor of world oceans in deep sea.

Composition: Besides manganese and iron, they contain nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium, of which nickel, cobalt and copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.

Potential: It is envisaged that 10% of recovery of that large reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years. It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean.