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02 December Current Affairs

AYUSH System of Medicine in the Country

In News:

Minister for AYUSH informed Lok Sabha about the Steps Taken to Popularize AYUSH System of Medicine in the Country.

The measures taken by the Ministry of AYUSH for further propagating the natural medical systems are:

The Ministry of AYUSH regularly observes days dedicated to AYUSH Systems of Medicine Viz. International Day of Yoga, Ayurveda Day, Unani Day, Siddha Day, Naturopathy Day, Homoeopathy Day etc. to create awareness about the benefits of the respective AYUSH system.

Ministry of AYUSH has established research councils namely Central council for research in homoeopathy (CCRH), Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS), Central Council in Research in Siddha (CCRS) and Central Council for Research in Unani Medicines (CCRUM) for undertaking Research and health awareness campaigns.

At present there is no such proposal for consideration to establish a University for Siddha and Unani Medical systems in Tamil Nadu on the lines of  Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan  Ayurveda Medical University in Rajasthan. However, the matter comes under the purview of State Government.

Civil Society Organizations on Electoral Literacy Clubs (ELCs)

In News:

Election commission of India (ECI) organized Orientation Programme for Civil Society Organizations on Electoral Literacy Clubs (ELCs).

About:

ECI, under its flagship programme ‘Systematic Voters’ Education & Electoral Participation’ (SVEEP), has introduced the project for Mainstreaming of Electoral Literacy through Educational Institutions/ Organizations.

This project envisages setting up of Electoral Literacy Club in every educational institution and Chunav Pathshala at every booth to cover those outside the formal education system.

Launched on 8th National Voters’ Day on 25th January, 2018, ELCs shall serve as a vibrant hub of Electoral Literacy for developing and strengthening the culture of electoral participation through hands on experience. Till now 5,80,620 ELCs have been established across the country.

Initiatives For Promotion Of Technology In Agriculture Sector

In News:

Union Minister of Agriculture informed Rajya Sabha about the various initiatives for promotion of technology in agriculture sector.

These are:

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) has established a network of 715 Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) in the country mandated with Technology Assessment and Demonstration for its Application and Capacity Development (TADA–CD).

Agro-advisories are given to the farmers through mKisan portal. mKisan portal is a platform which provides web-based mobile advisory to farmers with the technological backstopping from Research Institutes and Agricultural Universities supporting farmers.

Further, Sub Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM) provides a suitable platform for converging all activities for inclusive growth of agricultural mechanization by providing a ‘single window’ approach for implementation with a special focus on small & marginal farmers.

Government is also implementing National Agriculture Market (e-NAM) scheme for transparent price discovery for remunerative prices for the farmers for their produce through competitive online bidding system.

Under Marketing Research & Information Network (MRIN) Scheme, support is provided to the States towards setting up and maintaining connectivity with Agmarknet portal for collection and dissemination of market information on arrivals and prices of agri-commodities.

Recalling Landmark SC Judgement – S R Bommai

In News:

The Supreme Court has directed the Maharashtra Governor to ensure that the trust vote be held on November 28, 2019.

Details:

Several important observations were made by the Court from the ‘Bommai case’.

About S.R.Bommai vs Union of India case:

S.R. Bommai was the Chief Minister of the Janata Dal government in Karnataka.

His government was dismissed in 1989 under Article 356 of the Constitution and President’s Rule was imposed.

The dismissal was on the grounds that the Bommai government had lost majority following large-scale defections engineered.

The then Governor refused to give Bommai an opportunity to test his majority in the Assembly despite the latter presenting him with a copy of the resolution passed by the Janata Dal Legislature Party.

Bommai party went to Supreme Court against the Governor’s decision to recommend President’s Rule.

Highlights of Supreme Court ruling:

The Supreme Court has laid down a number of guidelines to curb the Centre’s capacity to dismiss a state government, and upheld the federal structure enshrined in the Constitution.

The ruling laid down the law that the only way to determine support enjoyed by a particular state government would be by means of a floor test.

The court also ruled that the validity of a proclamation of President’s Rule is subject to judicial review.

Further, it said that the only time the President shall have unconditional powers to dissolve a state government is when there is a complete breakdown of constitutional machinery.

The judgment also underlined the secular nature of the Constitution and said that a party cannot resort to religion for the sake of gaining power and, if found to be indulging in religious politics, could be acted against using Article 356.

Significance of the case’s ruling:

Since the Constitution came into force, President’s Rule under Article 356 has been imposed on states on several occasions.

However, these instances declined considerably after the S R Bommai ruling.

The judgement has become one of the most cited whenever hung Assemblies were returned and parties scrambled to form a government.

UN mandated deadline to return the Chagos Islands to Mauritius

In News:

Mauritius called the UK an “illegal colonial occupier”, after it ignored a UN mandated deadline to return the Chagos Islands to Mauritius. The United Nations had given UK six months to process the transfer, a move the UK and the US have bitterly resisted.

About:

The Chagos Archipelago is a group of seven atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean.

It is officially part of the British Indian Ocean Territory.

Timeline of dispute:

Chagos Archipelago has been part of Mauritius since at least the 18th century when France governed it. In 1810, Mauritius was captured by the United Kingdom and France ceded the territory in the Treaty of Paris.

In 1965, three years before Mauritius got its independence, Britain separated the Chagos islands to carve out a ‘British Indian Ocean Territory’.

In 1966, the UK leased Diego Garcia (the biggest island in the Chagos archipelago) to the US to create an air & naval base. For constructing the defence installation, the inhabitants of the island were forcibly removed.

In 1968 Mauritius was granted independence.

In February 2019, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) issued an advisory opinion that Britain has an obligation to end its administration of the Chagos Archipelago — home to the U.S. military base of Diego Garcia — and complete the process of decolonisation of Mauritius.

In May 2019, the UN General Assembly passed a resolution asking the U.K. to withdraw its “colonial administration” from the Chagos Archipelago within six months. Mauritius wants its sovereignty over the islands restored.

Clownfish

In News:

A new study published in the journal Ecology Letters has concluded that clownfish cannot be expected to be able to adapt to a rapidly changing environment as it does not have the genetic capacity to do so.

About:

Clownfish (family: Pomacentridae), also known as anemonefish, are some of the most iconic marine fish in the world.

They are highly popular among SCUBA divers due to their striking colour combinations of white, orange, yellow and brown.

There are a total of 28 species of clownfish, which are all very similar in their habits. Perhaps the most renowned of these is the Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris), which was popularised in the Walt Disney movie ‘Finding Nemo’.

Distribution: Clownfish are found in tropical and subtropical areas of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The greatest diversity of clownfish is found close to Papua New Guinea, although the Great Barrier Reef in Australia is also known for a number of unique variants

Habitat: Within their range, clownfish are restricted to shallow waters due to their fascinating relationship with only a handful of specific sea-anemone species.

Registration of political parties under Section 29A of the RP Act, 1951

In News:

Jannayak Janta Party of Haryana has been granted the status of a recognised State party by the ECI.

Registration of political parties:

Registration of Political parties is governed by the provisions of Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

A party seeking registration under the said Section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation as per guidelines prescribed by the Election Commission of India in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Commission of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.

To be eligible for a ‘State Political Party,’ the Election Commission has set the following criteria:

For any political party to be eligible for recognition as a State Party in a state, it has to satisfy any of the five conditions listed below:

  • Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 2 seats in an Assembly General Election.
  • Secure at least 6% of the valid vote & win at least 1 seats in a Lok Sabha General Election.
  • Win at least 3% of the seats or at least 3 seats , whichever is more, in an Assembly General Election.
  • Win at least 1 out of every 25 seats from a state in a Lok Sabha General Election.
  • Secure at least 8% of the total valid vote in an Assembly or a Lok Sabha General Election.

Benefits:

If a party is recognised as a State Party’, it is entitled for exclusive allotment of its reserved symbol to the candidates set up by it in the State in which it is so recognised, and if a party is recognised as a `National Party’ it is entitled for exclusive allotment of its reserved symbol to the candidates set up by it throughout India.

Recognised `State’ and `National’ parties need only one proposer for filing the nomination and are also entitled for two sets of electoral rolls free of cost at the time of revision of rolls and their candidates get one copy of electoral roll free of cost during General Elections.

They also get broadcast/telecast facilities over Akashvani/Doordarshan during general elections.

Political parties are entitled to nominate “Star Campaigners” during General Elections. A recognized National or State party can have a maximum of 40 “Star campaigners” and a registered un-recognised party can nominate a maximum of 20 ‘Star Campaigners”.

The travel expenses of star campaigners are not to be accounted for in the election expense accounts of candidates of their party.

Global Migration Report 2020

In News:

‘Global Migration Report 2020’ has been released by International Organisation for Migration’s (IOM).

Reasons for migration:

  • Economic conditions.
  • Ongoing conflicts and violence.
  • Impact of climate and weather disasters.

Indian Details:

India accounts for the highest share with 17.5 million Indians living outside the country.

India is the leading recipient of remittances. International remittances in 2018 (2020 report) reached $689 billion, out of which India received $78.6 billion from the 17.5 million living abroad.

Remittances received by India have consistently increased between the 2005 and 2020.

The top migration corridors for Indians are the United Arab Emirates, the US and Saudi Arabia.

Highest number of migrants entering India comes from Bangladesh.

Global scenario:

As compared to the 2000 Global Migration Report, the number of international migrants has nearly doubled in the 2020 report, from 150 million to 272 million.

India is followed by Mexico (11.8 million) and China (10.7 million).

Roughly two-thirds of international migrants are labour migrants.

The United States was the top remittance-issuer, at $68 billion, followed by the United Arab Emirates ($44.4 billion) and Saudi Arabia ($36.1 billion).

The top destinations for international migrants is the US where, as of September 2019, there were 50.7 million international migrants.

The US is followed by Germany, Saudi Arabia, Russian Federation and the UK.

The proportion of female international migrants has only marginally changed between the two reports, from 47.5% in 2000 to 47.9%.

The share of international migrants who were children has dropped from 16% in 2000 to 13.9%.

Oceania is the region with the highest proportion of international migrants.

The UAE is the country with the highest proportion of international migrants.

More than half of all international migrants (141 million) live in Europe and North America.

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